AP US History Chapter 1 outline & guide

Topics: Slavery, Atlantic slave trade, African slave trade Pages: 5 (1235 words) Published: October 23, 2013
1. People in motion
a. From Berginia to America
i. By 12,000 B.C. humans were in Siberia an western Alaska and Berginia, crossing land bridge.
ii. By 8,000 B.C. humans had reached Tierra del Fuego
b. The Great Extinction and the Rise of Agriculture
i. As glaciers receded and climate warmed, those who migrated south and east found good environment
ii. Some natives settled down and adopted food cultivation
1) Permanent farm villages began to develop
c. The Norsemen
i. Began exploring coast of North America in 1001 and established "Vinland" on Newfoundland coasts

2. Europe and the World by the 15th Century
a. China: The Rejection of Overseas Expansion
i. Initiated overseas voyages between 1405 and 1434 to East Indies and coast of East Africa
ii. Voyages indicate Chinese belief in their own superiority, China turns inward
b. Europe verses Islam
i. Islamic societies controlled overland trade with Asia and the only know sea route
ii. By 1400 Arab, mariners were world's best
iii. Ottoman Turks conquer Constantinople in 1453, overran the Balkans by the 1520's and also threatened Vienna
iv. Safavid Empire in Iran also prominent at this time
v. Mogul Empire forms basis for modern states of Pakistan and Bangladesh
vi. By 1300, population of Europe is over one million- black death reduces population- growth will resume after 1500
vii. Renaissance(rebirth) encourages explosion of European culture
1) Helped by development of the printing press
2) None of European kingdoms were self-contained economies, unlike China
3) Need to trade fosters competition
c. The Legacy of the Crusaders
i. Crusaders left a legacy of expansion
ii. First slaves were Moslem captives
1) Turned to Slavs in 14th and 15th century
2) Acquired some Africans, however they were not exploited with great intensity as later in the Americas
d. The Unlucky Pioneer: Portugal
i. Enjoyed a stable government- sought water route to compete with Arab traders
ii. Surpassed all rivals, mapping currents and winds
iii. Eventually found gold, ivory, and slaves
iv. Supported by Prince Henry the Navigator…
e. Africa, Colonies and the Slave Trade
i. Portuguese began to exploit Africans in the 15th century
ii. Captives were initially kidnapped, later they were purchased from local rulers
iii. During Atlantic Slave Trade, almost all Africans shipped overseas had first been enslaved by other Africans
f. Portugal's Asian Empire
i. Dias reached the Cape of Good Hope in 1487
ii. De Gama reached India ten years later, opening way for Portugal's empire in the East
iii. Asian and African trade provides about 2/3 of Portugal's revenue b 1515
iv. Never established colonies
g. Early Lessons
i. Sustained expansion overseas required the support of home gov't
ii. Economic impetus in place long before Columbus
1) Desire for precious metals
2) Staple crops and slavery
iii. Atlantic Slave Trade lasted for more than 300 years
iv. Opening of Americans provided great opportunity
3. Spain, Columbus and the Americas
a. Columbus
i. Sought financial backing for a long time
ii. Had both religious and practical motives
1) Convert natives to Christianity
2) Acquired wealth and glory
iii. Embraced on historic journey in August of 1492, landed in October and spent several months exploring
iv. Returned to Spain in January 1493, leaving crew behind; when he returned in late 1493 all had been killed
v. Pope alexander VI issues Inter Caeteras in 1493 dividing all non-Christian between Spain and Portugal
vi. Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) adjusted line
1) Spain claimed most of western hemisphere, plus Philippians
2) Portugal acquired Eastern hemisphere, including Africa, plus Brazil
vii. Spain never acquired direct access to African Slave Trade
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