APUSH Exam #1 Study Guide

Topics: Slavery, Colonialism, Atlantic slave trade Pages: 6 (3364 words) Published: November 4, 2014

APUSH [Sandler] Test #1 Study Guide
Chapter 2
European Society
European states were hierarchical
Europe was characterized by feudalism (Continent was divided into hundreds of small territories, each ruled by a family of lords who claimed a disproportionate share of wealth and power) Most Europeans were peasant farmers

Most Europeans were Christians united under the authority of the Roman Catholic Church -> Growing commerce stimulated the growth of markets and towns and by 1500, Europe had fully recovered from the Black Death and the population returned to its former peak of about 65 million. This revival led to the rise of a fledgling system of western European states. The monarchs of these states were new centers of power, and they found support among the rising merchant class of the cities, which in return sought lucrative royal contracts and trading monopolies. This alliance was a critical development in paving the way for overseas explorations. B. Portuguese Explorations

Prince Henry the Navigator played a key role in sponsoring exploration Technological innovations made longer sea voyages possible
The Portuguese explored the Atlantic coast of Africa seeking direct access to gold and slaves C. Spanish in the Americas
Columbus set sail in August 1492 and reached an island in the Bahamas (Samana Cay) in October 1492 Columbus decided to colonize the Taino natives that were living on the island The Taino were slaughtered by the Spanish and were effectively eliminated in 1520s. Columbus’s successors established an institution known as the encomienda (Native Indians were compelled to labor in the service of Spanish lords, aka slavery) Faced with labor shortages, Spanish slavers raided the Bahamas and depopulated them Cortes and the Aztecs:

Hernan Cortes arrived in Mexico in 1519
Cortes exploited resentment toward the Aztecs to overthrow their empire Smallpox outbreaks undermined the Aztecs ability to resist the Spanish, as well as the overwhelming power of the Spanish’s steel swords and weaponry Bartolome de las Casas, a priest with the mission to convert the Natives to Christianity, blamed the Spanish for cruelties resulting in millions of Indian deaths in his The Destruction of the Indies (1552). This was translated and circulated throughout Europe and created the “Black Legend” of Spanish colonization The primary cause of the drastic reduction in native populations was epidemic disease – influenza, plague, smallpox, measles, and typhus Ponce de Leon, governor of Puerto Rico, made his first landing at Florida in 1513 in an attempt to extend Spanish conquest to North America. But his and several later invasions were unsuccessful and Spain lost interest in Southwest for the next fifty years when they were unable to find the rumored “city with gold” The Spanish gained control of a powerful empire in the Americas in the late 16th century when Spaniards continuously settled in the Americas. Urban communities founded include Santo Domingo in Hispaniola, Havana in Cuba, Mexico City, Quito and Lima in the Incas. Sexual mixing and intermarriage was one aspect of the Spanish frontier of inclusion, in which native peoples and their mixed offspring played a vital part in colonial society (mestizos and mulattoes). D. French Northern Exploration and Encounters

Captain Cartier discovered the St. Lawrence River which led deep into the continental interior to the Great Lakes, giving France a geographic advantage over colonial powers, as well as establishing France’s imperial claim to the lands of Canada. The French and the Indian people of the northern woodlands established a mutual beneficial commerce relationship rather than one of conquest. The Indians were interested in the usefulness of textiles, glass, copper and ironware that the French brought, and the French in return were interested in the fur coats of the Indians. The Fur Trade:

Fur traders were critical to New France’s success...
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