Stages of Child Development and Related Developmental Theories Physical development
| Gross Motor Skills
| Walks more rhythmically; hurried walk changes to run. Jumps, hops, throw, and catches with rigid upper body. Pushes riding toy with feet; little steering.
| 3-4 years
| Walks up stairs, alternating feet, and down stairs, leading with one foot. Jumps and hops, flexing upper body.Throws and catches with slight involvement of upper body; still catches by trapping ball against chest.Pedals and steers tricycle.
| Walks down stairs, alternating feet; runs more smoothly.Gallops and skips with one foot.Throws ball with increased body rotation and transfer of weight on feet; catches ball with hands.Rides tricycle rapidly; steers smoothly.
| Increases running speed to 12 feet per second.Gallops more smoothly; engages in true skipping and sideways stepping.Displays mature, whole-body throwing and catching pattern; increases throwing speed. Rides bicycle with training wheels.
| Increases running speed to more than 18 feet per second.Displays continuous, fluid skipping and sideways stepping.Increases vertical jump from 4 to 12 inches and broad jump from 3 to over 5 feet; accurately jumps and hops from square to square.Increases throwing and kicking accuracy, distance, and speedInvolves the whole body in batting a ball; batting increases in speed and accuracy. Dribbling changes from awkward slapping of the ball to continuous, relaxed, even stroking
Source from: Laura E. Berk (2006). Physical Growth. Child Development Seventh Edition. P.g. 175
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