Core Chapter Learning Objectives for PSY 104 Developmental Psychology 1. Explain the role of theories in understanding human development, and describe three basic issues on which major theories take a stand. (pp. 5–7) 2. Describe recent theoretical perspectives on human development, noting the contributions of major theorists. (pp. 21–26)
3. Identify the stand that each contemporary theory takes on the three basic issues presented earlier in this chapter. (pp. 26, 27)
4. Describe the research methods commonly used to study human development, citing the strengths and limitations of each. (pp. 26–31) 5. Describe three research designs for studying development, and cite the strengths and limitations of each. (pp. 34–38) 6. Discuss ethical issues related to lifespan research. (pp. 39–40)
1. Explain the role and function of genes and how they are transmitted from one generation to the next. (p. 46) 2. Describe the genetic events that determine the sex of the new organism. (pp. 46–47) 3. Identify two types of twins, and explain how each is created. (pp. 47–48) 4. Describe various patterns of genetic inheritance. (pp. 48–52) 5. Describe major chromosomal abnormalities, and explain how they occur. (pp. 52–53) 6. Explain how reproductive procedures can assist prospective parents in having healthy children. (pp. 53–57) 7. Describe the social systems perspective on family functioning, along with aspects of the environment that support family well-being and development. (pp. 59–60) 8. Discuss the impact of socioeconomic status and poverty on family functioning. (pp. 60–63) 9. Summarize the roles of neighborhoods, towns, and cities in the lives of children and adults. (pp. 63–65) 10. Explain how cultural values and practices, public policies, and political and economic conditions affect human development. (pp. 65–70) 11. Explain the various ways heredity and environment can influence complex traits. (p. 70) 12. Describe concepts that indicate “how” heredity and environment work together to influence complex human characteristics. (pp. 72–74)
1. List the three phases of prenatal development, and describe the major milestones of each. (pp. 80–85) 2. Define the term teratogen, and summarize the factors that affect the impact of teratogens on prenatal development. (pp. 85–86) 3. List agents known or suspected of being teratogens, and discuss evidence supporting the harmful impact of each.(pp. 86–93) 4. Discuss other maternal factors that can affect the developing embryo or fetus. (pp. 93–95) 5. Describe the three stages of childbirth. (pp. 96–97) 6. Discuss the baby’s adaptation to labor and delivery, and describe the appearance of the newborn baby. (pp. 97–98) 7. Describe natural childbirth and home delivery, noting the benefits and concerns associated with each. (pp. 99–100) 8. List common medical interventions during childbirth, circumstances that justify their use, and any dangers associated with each. (pp. 100–101) 9. Describe the risks associated with preterm and small-for-date births, along with factors that help infants who survive a traumatic birth recover. (pp. 101–106) 10. Describe the newborn baby’s reflexes and states of arousal, including sleep characteristics and ways to soothe a crying baby. (pp. 106–111) 11. Describe the newborn baby’s sensory capacities. (pp. 111–113) 12. Explain the usefulness of neonatal behavioral assessment. (pp. 113–114)
1. Describe major changes in body growth over the first 2 years. (pp. 120–121) 2. Summarize changes in brain development during infancy and toddlerhood. (pp. 121–129) 3. Describe the development of the cerebral cortex, and explain the concepts of brain lateralization and brain plasticity (pp. 124–125, 126) 4. Describe how both heredity and early experience contribute to brain organization. (pp. 125, 127–128) 5. Discuss changes in the...
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