Bolded Items are Potential Short Answer Questions
Individual differences vs. General Development
Continuous development—gradual production over time (Ex: Infant cannot yet imitate parents, but will eventually be able to understand language. Discontinuous development—all of the sudden there is a dramatic change (stage theories, Piaget assumes this). Universal stages—children everywhere follow the same sequence of development. Contexts—unique combinations of genetics and environmental circumstances that can result in different paths of change.
Main Mechanisms/Advances of Holistic Theories (Know what each of these theories emphasize, how important, what are the main ideas, etc.) Behaviorism
Watson, Pavlov, and Skinner—all had different takes on this but all focused on behavior. Focus on environmental forces
Environment is king—all that matters (only pay attention to environmental influences) Genetic makeup or biological happening do not matter.
Social Learning Theory
Bobo Doll Experiment—children modeled the behaviors in the videos that they saw. Aggressive group performed aggressively, even more so than displayed in the video. When children observe an adult doing something they are more likely to do it themselves.
Vicarious Learning- Albert Bandura
We don’t have to directly experience something to learn from it. We can learn from watching others experience or get punished.
Natural selection—from generation to generations, the traits that are in all creatures in the world, have been passed on Attachment theory—bond between a child and parent, begins at infancy. Environmental Adaptation—we all have the same evolutionary past, but what makes us different is our experiences. (Upbringing, culture, language you speak)
Ecological Systems Theory (know the 5 systems)
What were the two big things that this theory gave us (as talked about in class)? Can you give examples of each? Biodirectionality— the child can influence the environment. (Ex: if a child has a bad temperament, parent may be overwhelmed and will not be a good caregiver Hierarchal systems—all things in individuals life
Microsystems—what they are directly involved in (effects their behavior) Mesosystem—how microsystems combine and effect eachother (things at home will effect school experience) Exosystem—things child is not directly involved in (parent has a bad day at work and brings that into the home microsystem, making her not as good of a parent that day) Macrocsystem—culture, customs, values, laws
Chronosystem—idea that all of these systems are traveling through time; they are all changing all the time. Ch. 1 readings: Freud, Erikson, Watson, Piaget ; Continuous vs. Discontinuous development Freud:
Continuous vs. Discontinuous:
Examples of how development in one domain affects development in another ???
Be able to explain them using the terms we used in class
Reinforcement—action to increase behavior
Punishment—action to decrease behavior
Examples of the different forms
Positive Reinforcement—reinforce good behavior receiving something the child wants; a reward. (Ex: child does well in school so they are allowed to go to their favorite restaurant) Negative reinforcement—child does something well so they get something they get excused from something they do not like to do. (Ex: You made your bed every day this week without being asked so you are excused from all other chores that weekend) Positive Punishment— child does something they are not supposed to so they receive something they do NOT want. (Ex: child is acting out during school and they receive a time out or detention) Negative Punishment—child did something they were not supposed to do and has something they like taken away because of it. (Ex: Child hits sibling multiple times and has TV taken away for a week. What Shamu Taught Me About a Happy Marriage: Main Themes
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