New World Encounters and the Columbian Exchange
Native American Origins
Environment, Change, and Human History
Human evolution has proceeded against a backdrop of great Ice Ages. The latest one occurring only 20,000 BCE years ago Human settlement in the Americas began during the Wisconsin glaciation period with migrations traversing across Beringia from northwest Asia present day Siberia in Russia across to North America. Later a warming trend nine thousand years ago BCE led Native American Indians to shift from game hunting to other forms of survival. The majority of North America’s original inhabitants descended from three separate migrating groups: the Paleo-Indians, the Na-Dene people, and the Eskimo (generic term). These people are descendants of the Chukta (Siberia) who were the ancestors of Mesopotamian Middle-Eastern inhabitants whose forefathers originated in Africa less than 60,000 BCE.
Seedtime for Native Cultures in North America
During the Archaic phase (5500BCE-200 CE) American Indians developed a new way of life. Permanent settlement appeared.
Greater reliance on vegetables and on small game and fish emerged. Finer stone tools were developed.
Dogs were domesticated, making possible easier transport of goods. Permanent settlement led to population growth, more free time, and to the emergence of art. Farming in permanent settlements also appeared during the Archaic phase. Forests were cleared to plant crops.
The inhabitants of north central Mexico developed maize (teosinte), from where it spread. Crop cultivation eventually spread as far as the woodland Indians of North America.
The Complex World of the Native American
American Indian communities differed widely.
The inhabitants of the Arctic region diverged racially and culturally from all other American Indian groups. American Indians in eastern North America practiced agriculture, hunting, and fishing. On the edge of the Western Plains, migration from site to site persisted. But no Great Plains culture existed yet. American Indians traded widely with each other.
North America’s inhabitants constructed large earthen mounds that served as ceremonial and trading centers. Hopewell culture remains at Cahokia indicate it was a center for the exchange of ideas and produce from all over the Western Hemisphere. The Mississippian culture built ceremonial and trading centers that had contact with Mexico’s Mayas. In the Eastern Woodlands, people lived in smaller villages where they combined agriculture with hunting and gathering. A dominant matriarch supervised the daily tasks of running the household. Indians in the Southwest were closely tied to Mexico but continued to engage in hunting and gathering longer than their counterparts south of the border.
The Age of Exploration 1000C.E. – 1600C.E.
Change and Restlessness in the Atlantic World
European interest in global exploration and trade developed long before Columbus’s voyage in 1492. The Vikings under Eric the Red and later is son Leif Erickson explored Europe’s eastern and western regions, established colonies in Iceland, Greenland, and North America, they refer to the inhabitants of the “Vinland” as Skraelings. Yale University bought a map of the western hemisphere done by Vikings- The problem with the Vinland map is it might be a fake 3 million dollars- might have got ripped off
The Crusades gave Europeans knowledge of international conditions and greater commercial skills as they attempted to wrest control of the Holy Land from the Muslims. In a since they opened things up. Christians fighting Muslims in the Holy Land. Most Europeans had short lives. Marco Polo going to China at this time. New things are opening up. 1200 AD Common European person- 40 years old is very old age 30 was the normal for people to live too
People where dyeing from diseases
Yellow fever, small pox, the plague, and starvation
Religion was huge rite now! People...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document