Human development: Part 1
Developmental of age-related changes in behaviour and mental process from conception to death→ developmental psychology (Conception starts at because things can affect the fetus before birth) Now looking at different aspects of developmental psy:
Developing physically and cognitively (todays lecture)
Post hoc fallacy→ Describes the tendency of people to assume that if something happens later and you found out that something else happen earlier did that earlier thing cause that later thing.
- Not all early experiences cause things that happened later. Ex. Depression what factors in childhood lead to depression in adulthood. You might see the whole group drank milk in childhood and that could be a factor. This temptation to consider this ridiculous cause is post hoc fallacy. Everyone drinks milk when a child. •
Bidirectional influences→ It’s not just the environment hinging on the child the child is also actively creating a certain environment. Researchers thought of children as passive recipients of their experiences. Its been shown that temperament affects the parenting babies receive. Easy babies are quite easy to parents and are more likely to engage in sensitive parenting so will unknown caregivers. If you are a difficult baby then your parents will engage in less sensitive parenting practices even unfamiliar adults will too. •
Thinking about early experiences
Infant determinism→ what happens to you when you are an infant will set you a particular course and you can’t deviate from that later on (obvi not true) early experiences are important but so are later experiences. IF a child is in a institution and they have certain affects and deficits like their social skills or their brain development etc. if they are then adopted soon you won’t see those deficits anymore and so early experiences don’t set you on a permanent course. •
Childhood fragility→ All these little choices and decisions will damage children. Children are resilient and little popular details of parenting won’t make a big difference that some books or media say. Children are not as fragile as the popular conception of them is.
Nature vs. Nurture: Both matter
Gene-environment interaction→ The Impact of genes depends on the environment in which the behaviour develops o
Children you are abused are more likely to grow up and have antisocial behaviours (criminal records). Only a minority 25-30% of these abused children go on to develop antisocial problems. Researchers said maybe there are genetic factors at play that make it them more susceptible to abuse. One gene that had to different versions (Two diff alleles) they found that a gene-environment interaction. One particular version of this gene was the determining factor. Nature via nurture→ Genetic predispositions can drive us to select and create particular environments o
Child predisposition is causing them to seek out these environment. Ex. Two parents highly skilled athletes. They probably passed on these things to you (The child) your parents are going to provide an environment where your athletics can drive. Your genes might lead you to seek out opportunities to be more athletic. Gene expression→Some genes “turn on” only in response to specific environmental events o
The environment can affect gene expression even though it doesn’t affect the gene themselves.
Cross-sectional design- examine people of different ages at a single time point •
Benefits→ Less time less money
Disadvantage→You are not positive that it is an age related change it could be another factor. 2.
Longitudinal design: track the development of the same group of people over time •
Disadvantages→Take more time and are more expensive, lot of drop of rates (subject attrition). •
Benefits→ It is the same group of people you are looking at, it’s the only way you are 100% sure you are looking at an age related change and not any other...
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