Exam 1 Highlights
* The leading cause of death in children younger than 19 is unintentional injuries.
* 6 elements included in the process of developing cultural competence are: * Working on changing one’s own world view through examining one’s own values and behaviors and striving to reject racism and institutions that support it * Becoming familiar with core cultural issues by recognizing these issues and exploring them with patients * Becoming knowledgeable about the cultural groups we work with while learning about each individual patient’s unique history * Becoming familiar with core cultural issues related to health and illness and communicating in a way that encourages patients to explain what an illness means to them * Developing a relationship of trust with the patient and creating a welcoming atmosphere in the health care setting * Negotiating for mutually acceptable and understandable interventions of care.
* Culturally sensitive interactions
* Nonverbal strategies
* Invite family members to choose where they would like to sit or stand, allowing them to select a comfortable distance. * Observe interactions with others to determine which body gestures (ex. Shaking hands) are acceptable and appropriate. Ask when in doubt. * Avoid appearing rushed
* Be an active listener
* Observe for cues, regarding appropriate eye contact * Learn appropriate use of pauses or interruptions for different cultures * Ask for clarification if nonverbal meaning is unclear * Verbal strategies
* Learn proper terms of address
* Use a positive tone of voice to convey interest
* Speak slowly and carefully, not loudly, when families have poor language comprehension * Encourage questions
* Learn basic words and sentences of family’s language, if possible * Avoid professional terms
* When asking questions, tell family why the questions are being asked, the way in which the information they provide will be used, and how it might benefit their child * Repeat important information more than once
* Always give the reason or purpose for a treatment or prescription * Use information written in family’s language
* Obtain the services of an interpreter whenever there is uncertainty regarding full comprehension in a medical encounter * Learn from families and representatives of their culture methods of communicating information without creating discomfort * Address intergenerational needs (ex. Family’s need to consult with others) * Be sincere, open, and honest and, when appropriate, share personal experiences, beliefs, and practices to establish rapport and trust * Religious beliefs that may affect nursing Care
* Islam (Muslim/Moslem)
* at birth, the 1st words said to the infant in his/her right ear are Allah-o-Akbar (Allah is great), and the remainder of the Call for Prayer is recited. An Aqeeqa (party) to celebrate the birth of the child is arranged by the parents. Male children are circumcised. * Death
* At the time of death, specific rituals (ex. Bathing, wrapping the body in cloth) must be done my same-sex Muslim. Before moving and handling the body, it is preferable to contact someone from the person’s mosque or the local Islamic Society to perform these rituals. * Organ donation/transplantation
* Individual decides on organ donation/transplantation. * Diet and food practices
* Prohibit all pork products and alcohol
* Fasting is practiced during the ninth month of the Islamic year (Ramadan) * Medical Care
* Believers are encouraged in the Qu’ran to seek treatment. It is taught that only Allah cures; however, Muslims are taught not to...
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