POLA90 MIDTERM NOTES

Topics: Slavery, Atlantic slave trade, Arab slave trade Pages: 11 (3157 words) Published: April 11, 2014
Corruption from Nibble to Gulp
dishonest or fraudulent conduct by those in power, typically involving bribery (OED) Generally thought of as resulting in the misuse of public office for private gain four main deliquescences:
1) dash
2) money politics
3) mango corruption
4) baobab corruption
Dash:
> spreads through all developing societies
> small bribes, “presents”, unprofessionalized favours Money Politics
> the flow of money outside official channels to influence the selection of leaders and their policies > people in control of the country’s economy try to take over the political system i.e) US Mango/Baobab Corruption

> using a range of means from truly intense corruption to raw military power to seize the economy directly Mango Corruption
> economic system still operates basically upon what economists style a virtuous model while corrupt ministers, prime ministers and middlemen steal what they can, with only secondary distortionary effects > more money made = more to steal

> economy can still prosper
> in Baobab corruption, the economy is doomed
Example of Baobob corruption: Nigeria
> not enough food, much disease, no electricity
> organized by leaders with absolute power
Thailand: politicians are restricting the state for their own ends Ghana — Problems with overvalued exchange rates:
> creates opportunities for corruption
> people who were allowed to purchase goods at the state-fixed phoney exchange rate were able to make huge profits > tremendous incentives for the creation of a parallel or black market > forces people to try to smuggle their goods abroad, opening the door for corruption on the part of whoever controls the border police corruption of the money politics type may actually be more noticeable by the growth of democracy rapid economic growth in the developing world and a higher national consciousness and a rich world of NGOs is needed to combat corruption in the form of dash and money politics combating Baobab corruption: European NGO Transparency International ranks countries corruption and the recurrent and regular ratings of human rights by the Freedom House

Pinker
violence has declined historically, and we may be living today in the most peaceable era in our species's existence the belief that violence has increased suggests that the world we made has contaminated us, perhaps irretrievably. The belief that it has decreased suggests that we started off nasty and that the artifices of civilization have moved us in a noble direction, one in which we can hope to continue Rising standards:

> the illusion of violence springs from one of the forces that drove violence down in the first place > decline of violent behaviour —> decline in attitudes that tolerate or glorify violence When bands, tribes, and chiefdoms came under the control of die first states, violent feuding and raids diminished dramatically. > second factor contributing to the decline of violence is commerce because as technological progress allows die exchange of goods and ideas over longer distances and among larger groups of trading partners, other people become more valuable alive than dead and they are less likely to become targets of demonization and dehumanization Third force promoting the species's retreat from violence has been /eminization - that is, a growing respect among cultures for the interests and values of women > societies that empower women tend to move away from the glorification of violence and are less likely to breed dangerous subcultures of rootless young men States, Regimes, Government

The state is a central institution in comparative politics, as the centralization of violence over a territory. Regimes guide state by serving as their rules and norms of politics Political legitimacy can take many forms charismatic, traditional, and rational-legal States can vary in autonomy( freedom) and capacity which shapes their power at home and abroad

Defining a state:
-An...
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