Development: (+) or (-) changes in life
Patterns of continuities and change (includes growth and decline) 3 ways we develop:
Partly like most individuals (biologically)
Partly like others (small group experience)
Ex: death of a parent
Partly like no others
Ex: certain childhood experience
BROAD DOMAINS OF DEVELOPMENT:
Cognitive (glass of water)
Psychosocial (how we deal with emotions)
Definitions of development:
Growth: physical changes from birth to maturity (biological changes)
Aging: (+) and (-) changes in the mature organism
Maturation: biological unfolding of individual genetic plan
Learning: relatively permanent changes due to environmental experiences.
Age grades: socially defined age groups
Ex: children, infants, elderly etc..
Each comes with its own privilege/responsibility
Very gradual process
Age norms: behavioral expectations of age groups
Ex: expect children to attend school
Social clock: when things SHOULD be done
Ex: having children by a certain age.
“Off-time” experiences are more difficult
not expecting (parent death, teen pregnancy)
Traditional approach: extensive change from birth to adolescence, little to no change in adulthood. Decline in old age.
Modern life-span approach: developmental change in childhood as well as adulthood. Gerontology: study of old age and aging.
Before 1600: children viewed as mini adults
Modern view: innocent/need protection
Average life expectancy 1900’s: 47 years
Average life expectancy 2000: 77.5 years
Greater in whites by about 5 years
Don’t really know why the mind changes: BOTH!!!
Nature vs. nurture debate
Nature: heredity maturation and genes (biology)
Nurture: learning, experience, cultural influence and environment (world experiences)
GENETICS AND ENVIRONMENT INTERACT:
Experiment on maze running in rats
Selectively bred 2 lines of rats
1. Dull – on how well they could run the maze
kept environment the same
Raised offspring in a rich or less enriched environment (wasn’t much opportunity to learn how mazes worked – less) Genetics idea: thought those from dull genetics line would simply do worse RESULTS: dull line did just as well in enriched environment (now performed like bright rats)
ECOLOGY OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT:
Bronfenbrenner: bioecological model (interactionist model)
How nature and nurture interact to produce development
1. Microsystem: immediate environment
Ex: classes you attend etc..
2. Mesosystem: relationships between Microsystems
Ex: divorce parents might affect how you do in school.
3. Exosystem: Social systems – NOT DIRECT
Ex: dad had a bad day at work, and child feels this at home
4. Macrosystem: culture
Chronosystem: changes occur in a time frame
3 goals of developmental psychology:
Understanding what happens during development
Typical and individually different development
How we can improve development
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
Theory of evolution
Use of baby biographies
Kept records of how infants act
Systematically understanding difference in children
Stanley Hall (1844-1924)
Questionnaire methodology with children
1st to coin that adolescence is a period of storm and stress. Alfred Binet
1st IQ tests (Halls work to the next level)
attempt to get a stable estimate of child’s intelligence
Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
Focused on cognitive theories of development
Modern life span perspective:
7 key assumptions of modern-life span perspectives
Life long (always undergoing change)
Gain and loss and lifelong plasticity
Historical/cultural contests, multiple influence
Theory: set of concepts and propositions that describe and explain some aspect of behavior. Hypothesis: theoretical predictions that can be tested by collecting data. Random sample...
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