Chapter 11 Human Development Across The

Topics: Attachment theory, Jean Piaget, Psychology Pages: 2 (267 words) Published: December 5, 2014
Chapter 11: Human development across the lifespan

Prenatal development
Progress Before Birth: prenatal development(生前发育) germinal stage= conception to 2 weeks
Conception(怀孕), implantation(灌输), formation of placenta(胚胎形成) embryonic stage=2 weeks to 2 months
formation of vital organs and systems(重要器官和系统的形成) fetal stage=2 months to birth
bodily growth continues(身体持续增长), movement capability begins(运动能力开始), brain cells multiply(大脑细胞繁殖) age of viability(生存的时间)

Prenatal testosterone

(Video: BBC secret of the sexes)
The 2D:4D ration is hypothesized to be affected by the amount of testosterone someone is exposed to in the womb.

The Childhood years
Motor development(运动发育)
Basic principles
Cephalocaudal trend: head to foot(从头到位的顺序)
Proximodistal trend: centre-outward从中心到外的顺序)

Factors affecting Motor development
Developmental norms:
Based on the median age
Wide variations within normal range(interpret cautiously)
Cultural variations(文化差异)

The childhood years: differences in temperament(性情,性格) Temperament: an individual’s characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity. Longitudinal V.S. Cross-sectional designs
Thomas,Chess, and Birch(1970)
3 basic temperamental styles
Early emotional development: Attachment
Close, emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their caregivers. Behaviorist perspective
Harlow’s mnkey’s
Substitute mothers
Separation anxiety
The strange situation and patterns of attachment
Developing secure attachment
Bonding at birth, daycare, cultural factors

Stage theories: cognitive development(认知发展)

Jean Piaget(1920s-1980s)
Assimilation: interpreting new experiences using existing mental structures Accommodation: changing existing mental structures to explain new...
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