Chapter 11 Human Development Across The

Topics: Attachment theory, Jean Piaget, Psychology Pages: 2 (267 words) Published: December 5, 2014
Chapter 11: Human development across the lifespan

Prenatal development
Progress Before Birth: prenatal development(生前发育) germinal stage= conception to 2 weeks
Conception(怀孕), implantation(灌输), formation of placenta(胚胎形成) embryonic stage=2 weeks to 2 months
formation of vital organs and systems(重要器官和系统的形成) fetal stage=2 months to birth
bodily growth continues(身体持续增长), movement capability begins(运动能力开始), brain cells multiply(大脑细胞繁殖) age of viability(生存的时间)

Prenatal testosterone
2D:4D

(Video: BBC secret of the sexes)
The 2D:4D ration is hypothesized to be affected by the amount of testosterone someone is exposed to in the womb.

The Childhood years
Motor development(运动发育)
Basic principles
Cephalocaudal trend: head to foot(从头到位的顺序)
Proximodistal trend: centre-outward从中心到外的顺序)

Factors affecting Motor development
Developmental norms:
Based on the median age
Wide variations within normal range(interpret cautiously)
Cultural variations(文化差异)

The childhood years: differences in temperament(性情,性格) Temperament: an individual’s characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity. Longitudinal V.S. Cross-sectional designs
Thomas,Chess, and Birch(1970)
3 basic temperamental styles
Easy--40%
Slow-to-warm-up--15%
Difficult--10%
Mixed--35%
Early emotional development: Attachment
Attachment:
Close, emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their caregivers. Behaviorist perspective
Harlow’s mnkey’s
Substitute mothers
Ainsworth(1979)
Separation anxiety
The strange situation and patterns of attachment
Secure
Anxious-ambivalent
Avoidant
Disorganized/disoriented
Developing secure attachment
Bonding at birth, daycare, cultural factors

Stage theories: cognitive development(认知发展)

Jean Piaget(1920s-1980s)
Assimilation: interpreting new experiences using existing mental structures Accommodation: changing existing mental structures to explain new...
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