Characteristics of Families

Topics: Jean Piaget, Developmental psychology, Theory of cognitive development Pages: 5 (733 words) Published: November 20, 2013
Chapter 7

Six characteristics of strong families
- Being committed
- Showing appreciation
- Communication
- Spending time
- Sharing values and beliefs
- Coping with stress

Erikson – 3 stages (I)

Early Childhood = Initiative (3rd stage)
- Children display eagerness to understand new activities
- Guilt is emotional response to realization of possible failure

Middle Childhood = Industry (6-12 years old) (4th stage)
- Children attempt to gain recognition of their efforts in completing something worthwhile

Adolescence = Identity (12-20 years old) (5th stage)
- 2 developmental peaks: take on adult body proportions, ability to think abstract - Adolescents gain increase sense of purpose and own individuality

Vygotsky – social context of learning

Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

Preoperational stage (age 2-7) (2nd stage)
- Children think before taking any action and anticipate outcome

Concrete Operational Stage (age 7-12) (3rd stage)
- Children begin to use symbols to perform operations or mental activities, although cannot transcend "here and now"

Formal Operational Stage (age 12-20) (4th stage)
Adolescents can think:
1. logical
2. abstract
3. systematic
4. hypothetical
Physical Development
- Slow, steady physical growth in early childhood until middle childhood

Poverty is major contributor to poor health, affecting 23% of children (0-17) in US in 2012

Gross Motor Skills: Abilities acquired during infancy and early childhood pertaining to whole body movement and large muscle groups - Involves entire body

Fine Motor Skills: Coordination of small muscle movements

Obesity: body weight more than 20% average for person of given age and height

Lateralization: Left (verbal), Right (nonverbal)

Handedness: preference for using either the right or left hand in gross and fine motor activities

Deferred imitation: They are able to imitate someone’s actions long after seen or heard

Yet, children are grounded in “here and now”

Operations: Mental activities

Centration: Focus on several aspects of problem at same time

Irreversiblity: Reverse series of operations to original state

Egocentrism: Taking other viewpoints into account

Animism: projection of human qualities onto inanimate objects and forces

Autobiographical Memory: first memory

Zone of proximal development: According to Vygotzky, the level at which a child can almost, but not fully perform a task independently, but can do so with the assistance of someone more competent

Scaffolding: degree of assistance provided to the learner in the zone of proximal development, gradually decreasing as the learner's skill develop

Fast mapping: refers to preschoolers’ ability to associate words with their meaning after one encounter

Private speech: in Vygotsky's theory, self guiding and self-directing comments children make to themselves as they learn in the zone of proximal development and have conversations with those guiding them; first spoken aloud, then internally

Social Speech: speech spoken to others and meant to be understood by others

Television and Internet
- Televised violence is part of social learning theory

Developmentally appropriate educational practice
- Typical development: teacher designs activities based on what child can do - Unique: teacher realizes each child is unique

Chapter 8

Self-concept: set of beliefs about oneself

Self-esteem: positive/negative self-evaluation

Gender-identity: awareness of oneself as male or female

Gender constancy: People are permanently males or females, depending on fixed, unchangeable biological factors

According to social learning theory, gender-specific behavior is learned from observing others.

By reading aloud:
- Provides positive reading role model
- Improves listening comprehension
- Develops child’s vocab
- Promotes critical thinking skills

TV can influence children’s attitudes about:
- Gender...
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