Describe the Expected Pattern of Children and Young People’s Development from Birth to 19 Years Question:
1. Describe the expected pattern of children and young people’s development from birth to 19 years , to include: a) Physical development.
b) Communication and intellectual development.
c) Social, emotional and behavioural development.
At 0-3 years
New born babies have little control over their bodies. Their movement depends on series of reflexes, as they get older they start to develop series of movements and actions called the ‘gross motor skills’ such as crawling, sitting, grabbing, pointing, running rolling, hopping, jumping, and so on. In their second year, children should have better ability to control their movement. In their third year, children would start to develop some ‘fine motor skills’ such as painting, colouring, and scribbling. They would enjoy looking at, and turning the pages of books. At this age they should be able to use a cup and feed themselves.
At 3-7 years.
At this stage, children will be refining the skills developed so far, they will have more confidence and more control over the fine motor skills such as cutting, writing and drawing.
At 7-12 year.
Children would start to have hobbies and interest such as sports, dance, drama, and songs. Children will continue to develop and refine many of their skills. The girls will start to show signs of early puberty from age 10-11. Puberty in boys usually start later.
At 12-16 years.
The boys will be starting to go through puberty and many of the girls would be completing their puberty and having regular periods, as a result of the different stages of puberty, the boys and girls would vary in height. At this stage most girls are taller than boys and the young people will be growing stronger.
At 16-19 years.
Young people are considered as adult, although many girls may be physically matured at this stage, the boys will continue to grow until their mid 20s.
Communication and intellectual development:
Children’s communication and intellectual development depends to a large extent on their own experiences and the opportunities they are given from the earliest age.
At 0-3 years
Babies will start to be listening to languages around them and enjoy songs and games. Some children will start to speak at 12 months, although not clearly. By 1 and 2 years, children will start to put words together and their vocabulary will increase. Between age 2 and 3, Chhildren will start to used negative and plurals in their speech, although they will make errors in their grammar when speaking.
At 3-7 years
Children become more social and have wider experiences. They ask large amount of questions and will be able to talk about things in past and future tenses with greater confidence. They will start looking for adult approval and will be starting to learn how to read.
At 7-12 years
By now most children will be fluent in speaking a language, they would be able to transfer information and think in a more abstract way. At this stage, children will be developing and refining their skills at reading and writing. They will be more able to think and discuss ideas.
At 12-16 years
Young people will be selecting and taking GSCEs and A levels, they will usually now have a clear idea about their favourite subject .this is the stage young people want to feel like they belong.
At 16-19 years
Most young people are leaving school and are thinking of the career path to take and university choices. They will be able to focus on their area of strength and be able to develop it more.
Social, emotional and behavioural development:
At 0-3 years
Children will be starting to find out about their own identities. They will form strong attachment to parents and careers. At this stage children have tantrums through frustration and will want to do things by themselves.
At 3-7 years
Children will start to play...
References: 1. Understanding child development by Lindon Jennie
2. Supporting teaching and learning in schools- By Louise Burnham and Brenda Baker.
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