“Child Development: Birth to Age 2”
ECD – 102 Term Paper
Prepared By: Patricia I. Ramsey
Prepared For: Dr. Switzer
What is child development?
Child development refers to how a child becomes able to do more complex things as they get older. Development is different than growth. Growth only refers to the child getting bigger in size. When we talk about normal development, we are talking about developing skills like: • Gross motor: using large groups of muscles to sit, stand, walk, run, etc., keeping balance, and changing positions. • Fine motor: using hands to be able to eat, draw, dress, play, write, and do many other things. • Language: speaking, using body language and gestures, communicating, and understanding what others say. • Cognitive: Thinking skills: including learning, understanding, problem-solving, reasoning, and remembering. • Social: Interacting with others, having relationships with family, friends, and teachers, cooperating, and responding to the feelings of others. (1997) What are developmental milestones?
Developmental milestones are a set of functional skills or age-specific tasks that most children can do at a certain age range. Your pediatrician uses milestones to help check how your child is developing. Although each milestone has an age level, the actual age when a normally developing child reaches that milestone can very quite a bit. Every child is unique! (2000)
To develop an infant’s motor skills, allow them to explore their environment and encourage them to do activities which involve physical activity. To develop early motor skills, clap an infant’s hands, wiggle his or her fingers, teach the infant to form the number 1 with his or her fingers. Eventually that will translate into them learning the hand-eye coordination they will need to know in order to feed themselves or to start coloring. (1995) Physical development generally occurs around the same time, but cognitive development and social/emotional development may begin at different stages. While there are generalizations of what babies should be doing at a certain stage in their life, a parent should not be worried if the baby is not doing what’s listed in a book. Remember that children develop at different rates. The level of interaction the parent or provider has with a child has a direct impact on the rate of a child’s development. Children that are stimulated recognize objects faster than another child with less interaction. (1995) An essential ingredient in infant care is touching. It’s completely vital for the development of a child. If you have two kids crying and one is picked up and has sensory support, that child is going to be more responsive. In addition to verbal communication and interaction, hugging and touching is extremely important for infants. It’s how they associate feelings and words with responses. (1994)
Normal Stages of
(Birth to 2 Years)
Below you will find an overview of child development from birth to two years of age. It is important to keep in mind that the time frames presented are averages and some children may achieve various developmental milestones earlier or later than the average but still be within the normal range. This information is presented to help parents understand what to expect from their child. Any questions you may have about your child's development should be shared with his doctor. (1994) | |Physical and Language |Emotional |Social | |Birth |Feedings: 5-8 per day |Generalized Tension |Helpless | |to | | |Asocial | |1 month |Sleep: 20 hrs per day |...
References: Bredekamp, S. & Copple, C. (Eds.). (1997). Developmentally appropriate practice in early childhood programs (Rev. ed.). Washington: NAEYC.
Sandall, S. McLean, M. E., & Smith, B. (2000). DEC recommended practices in early intervention/early childhood special education. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.
Bukatko, D. & Daehler, M. W. (1995). Child development: A thematic approach.
Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Allen, K. E. & Marotz, L. (1994) Developmental profiles: Pre-birth through eight. Albany, New York: Delmar.
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