TTT, STT and THE USE OF L1
Set of procedures the
teacher uses in order to
ensure the smooth and
among learners. It also
involves the efficient
use of audiovisual aids
and other forms of realia
Teacher Talking Time
Student Taking time
The use of L1
Why is teacher talking time (TTT)
Teacher talk = Organization
of the classroom
= Process of language acquisition
The quantity of TTT is important and so is the
quality. A good balance should always be the target.
Factors to be considered:
Nunan (1995: 190)
The point in the lesson in which the talking occurs.
What prompts the teacher talk (planned or spontaneous)
The value of the talk as potentially useful for acquisition.
Students Talking Time
STT is the opportunity students
have to talk in the classroom.
Learners need to:
• Attend to information
• Volunteer original ideas
• Ask relevant questions.
• Work with other learners
• Solve problems co-operatively.
• Work independently in class or
STT is enhanced by:
• Promoting a ‘listening culture’ in the
• Asking more challenging questions.
• Being ready to accept unexpected
• Allowing silences and time for
• Planning and building in
meaningful tasks to encourage
• Encouraging students to ask
questions, to initiate talk and to
THE USE OF L1 IN CLASS.
Facilitate teacher-student communication
Facilitate teacher-student rapport
Systematize comprehension of L2 structures
Harbord, J. (1992) : ¨TheCONCLUSIONS
use of the mother tongue in the classroom in The ELT Journal, Vol. 46/4.
There must be a balance in the TTT and the STT if teachers really want to achieve their objectives in class.
The use of L1 should be done taking into consideration students’ needs and environment. Nevertheless, it must be used efficiently. I think that…
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