Jean Piaget was the first psychologist to suggest a theory of moral development. According to Piaget, development emerges from action, and people construct and reconstruct their knowledge of the world as a result of interactions with the environment. He wanted to find the “biological explanation of knowledge”. Piaget's theory identifies four developmental stages, which are: 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2), 2. Pre-operational stage (2-7 years old), 3. Concrete operational (7-11 years old), and 4. Formal operational (11 years and up). Based on these stages, a child cannot undertake certain tasks until they are psychologically mature enough to do so (Atherton, J S, 2013). Referring to elementary schooling, many times schools use curriculum that introduce concepts that can be or are too abstract and will frustrate the student. Keeping the stages in mind will help me adapt the curriculum to make it more relevant to the age level of my students and not so overwhelming. Secondly, I will discuss Vygotsky. Vygotsky’s main framework is that "social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition" (Culatta, 2013). Culatta (2013) also states that cognitive development depends on ZPD (zone of proximal development). In other words, based on the social experience acquired and encountered, those interactions will change our brains. Mainly thinking about my students from the previous class (kindergarten), I had two young boys, Matthew and Nicolas. Now, Matthew is preforming below grade level leaving him academically deficient based on Kindergarten Standards. Similar to his academics, he lacks social skills and at times can be socially “awkward”. During recess, I usually saw him playing alone and this was very concerning to me since day one. Piaget (1962) makes a valid point on how actions, whether it is individual or interpersonal, are in essence coordinated and organized by the operational structure, which construct the course of...
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