|1. |Explain what sequence of child development means and describe what is expected as normal development within each | | |stage. | | |Children more or less develop in roughly the same order. E.g. sit-up - crawl - walk. Sequence of development is the | | |expected order most children will reach key milestones in their development. Development is principally affected by | | |two key principles. Nature, in which the pre-programmed genetics affect development. Nurture, where development is a | | |result of experiences in their environment. | | |It is important to remember that childrens development is holistic, this means that all areas influence each other | | |and they are fluid in their time frames. |
|2. |Explain what is meant by rate of child development and why the difference to sequence of development is important. | | |The rate of development is the time scale that the sequences of development will be achieved. It is difference to the| | |sequence in that the sequence is orderly and structered. But children develop at different rates. Rates are | | |approxiamte whereas sequence is a linear journey. Ie. you will crawl before you walk, but the rate in which a YP | | |learns to walk from crawling will vary from child to child. |
|3. |Think of three reasons why a child might not develop according to expectations. | | |1. Disability can affect both physical psychological development. These can result from genetics, accidents or | | |learning difficulties. This is known as a personal factor. | | |2. Poverty and deprivation can adversly affect development. This is due mainly to the stresses involved with worrying| | |about money for food, clothes and heat in the winter. These can effect mental health, physical health and the ability| | |to play safely in the home. Meaning learning experiences are reduced. This is an external factor. | | |3. Family environment and background has a profound effect on the development of YP's. A stable home will provide ll | | |of the primary care (heat shelter etc) but will also provide space for the YP to learn and to express. However, homes| | |where this is not prevelant due to issues affecting the parents, i.e. alcohol abuse, stress, domestic violence or | | |health issues. This may lead to a lack of interaction and/or positive role models. It could also lead to physical, | | |emotional, sexual abuse and will almost certainly constitiue an act of neglect. This is an external factor. |
|4. |Research and explain at least three well know theories of child development. | | |1. Piagets constructivist approach basically states that children are constant learners. They learn from their | | |experiences and their environment. Ie when the play they learn without being taught. for example - different shaped | | |items to fit through similarly shaped holes. They learn which shapes go through themselves. Children generally make | | |the same mistakes as peers of a similar age. This theory relates soley to cognitive development (i.e. the way we | | |think) and he believes that cognitive development goes in stages and these stages should not be rushed. This learning| | |is done by using first hand knowledge and past experiences. Piaget reffered to this as schemas. | | |2. People such as Skinner and Pavlov...
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