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12062003 Cognitive psychology Fatou Diallo PC4003
Describe the development of prosocial behaviour in young children. To what extent are parents involved in this development?
Developmental psychology is one of the most important disciplines in psychology, which tries to understand how human development works, and it contains different interesting theories. This essay will focus on one specific approach of developmental psychology, which concerns childhood social development. This topic explains clearly the importance of socialization. Studies in social development started centuries ago with Darwin in 1877. Other early works was developed during 1920s and 1930s, but was interrupted during World War II. Fortunately, new research began during the cognitive revolution with the main theorist of child development Jean Piaget (1896-1980), with his theory of cognitive development. However, Vygotsky (1896-1934) found most dominant theories about the social contribution to the process of development, and he decided to conduct new experiments, with his theory of sociocultural development. Social developments of children theories are principally based on individual differences in sociability, peers acceptance, social skills and so on. So, this essay will describe the development of prosocial behaviour in childhood, and explain the role of parents in this development. Different issues will also be considered, like different stages of development, the development of the self, friendship and the presence of peers. A detailed evaluation summary of the topic will be given regarding early research and the testability of childhood social development theories. It will be argued, that children social development is one of the most important developments in shaping personality behaviour.
Children social development can be defined, as the child’s experience, expression and management of emotions, and the ability to establish positive and rewarding relationship with other individuals. (Cde.ca.gov, 2015) Many theorists tried to understand this mechanism, and the role of parents in this development. However, it is first important to know all stages of young children development and how parents involved in this case. Prosocial behaviour starts at the second year of life, with language, communication and imitation repetitions of words, and so on. At the third year, the child will often says “ No”, showing feelings (angry or happy), but at the fourth year, he is talking freely and a big step in social development occurs, because he wants to have companionship, play freely, but still stay close to an adult. The four –year-old child, will be more dependent and confident, he needs the presence of other children to play with, he asks for help to an adult freely, talks freely and often says “ Why”, and he cares about others. In addition, the five-year-old child, is more likely to be confident, independent and very friendly, he often says “Why” like a four-year-old child, he learns that he needs to share attention and affection with others, his personality is becoming well defined, and he do not wants to be rejected by his peers. The six-year-old child is friendly, trusting, more open with...
References: Cde.ca.gov, (2015). Social-Emotional Development Domain - Child Development (CA Dept of Education). [online] Available at: http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/itf09socemodev.asp [Accessed 2 Mar. 2015].
Lee, C. (1990). The growth and development of children. London: Longman, pp.12, 13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,123,124,125.
Smith, P. and Hart, C. (2002). Blackwell handbook of childhood social development. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers, p.462.
Keenan, T. (2002). An introduction to child development. London: SAGE Publications, pp.2, 36, 37, 199, 200,201,202,203,206,209, 210, 218.
McLeod, S. (2015). Vygotsky | Simply Psychology. [online] Simplypsychology.org. Available at: http://www.simplypsychology.org/vygotsky.html [Accessed 2 Mar. 2015].
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