Explain how Disability May affect learning

Topics: Developmental psychology, Jean Piaget, Child development Pages: 23 (8065 words) Published: November 27, 2014

Student Name: Jacci Gordon
Student Address: Welsh Office, BFPO 2
Date of Submission:
Student Number: SH45742/UKOC

Task One: Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth to 19 years.

Children and young people develop at different rates, but the sequence in which they develop is mostly the same.

from head to toe
from inner to outer – control of muscles in the head and trunk then moving outward from simple to complex – simple words and short sentences to complex sentences from general to specific – responses in very young children can involve the whole body but in older children may just involve the face

The rate of development is dependent on many factors and can differ greatly from child to child. The main areas of development are:

1.   Physical development
2.   Social development
3.   Intellectual development
4.   Language development
Below is a short list of how they might develop in specific age ranges: 0-3 months: Smile, turn their head at familiar sounds, shake and hold a rattle, 6-12 months: Make noises and show feelings of joy and sadness, begin to crawl, recognise their name, look for dropped objects, reach towards food, show affection to familiar people 1-2 years: Begin to walk, begin to pick food up with fingers, wave, say no, hold drawing materials, shows preference for one hand, mostly cooperative, play alongside other children, use phrases 3 years: want to do things for themselves, demanding attention, jump, climb, paint, eat by themselves, understands how to do 2/3 things at once, vocabulary extends, more controlled use of drawing materials, asking questions, making sentences, can walk on tip toes, pours liquid, kick and throw a ball, sense of humour. 4 years: Pedal a bike, throw with aim, confident with scissors, more cooperative with adults, likes to help with everything, sociable and starts to show concern for others 5 years: grammar more accurate, able to communicate own ideas, recognise their own written name, use pictures to follow stories in a book, questions become more complex, hold drawing material steadily and copy shapes and lettering 5-7 years: fluent speaker, can make up stories, handles books, start to read 7-12 years: team games, climb confidently and swing, hit a ball, skip run and jump, becoming less dependent on adults, aware of own gender, starts to form close friendships at about 8 years, can be shy, arrogant, bossy, uncertain, take an interest in certain subjects by 9, may need help with spelling but vocabulary will grow, know different tenses and grammar. 12-19 years: Adolescence is said to start for girls at age 11. At this stage they still lack clearly defined roles and feelings of anger, insecurity and frustration may surface. Rate of growth is different in children and a 15 year old girl can be physically mature by the time she is 15. Boys usually reach adolescence later at age 14 when their voices may break and they will develop body hair. Co-ordination and strength will increase greatly in both sexes. Their bodies are experiencing dramatic changes and they also become less worried about adult approval generally seeking peer approval in its place. Their pace of intellectual development depends now on what guidance they are given to make the connections between knowledge and practical application in daily life. The more they are supported the quicker they will grow.

Task 2: Explain the difference between sequence of development and rate of development and why the difference is important

The difference between sequence and rate is that the sequence of development is a process where one development is followed by another and achieves a certain level with a series of changes or growth that leads to a matured state. The rate of development is the pace of something that compares to something else. Although children follow the same pattern of development, every child has a different rate of development. So...
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