Human Development

Topics: Developmental psychology, Theory of cognitive development, Jean Piaget Pages: 49 (8414 words) Published: January 3, 2015
Factors Governing
Development
THIS WILL TALK ABOUT THE EDUCATION AND CULTURE WHICH ARE THE FACTORS THAT GOVERNS DEVELOPMENT

What is Child Development?


Child development is a process every child goes through. This process involves learning and mastering skills like sitting, walking, talking, skipping, and tying shoes. There are 5 main areas of development:

Cognitive Development
Speech and Language Development
Social and Emotional Development
Gross Motor Skill Development
Fine Motor Skill Development

Development Delay


Development delay is where a child has not learnt the skills that are expected at that time point. Development delay can occur in any of the 5 areas.



For example, a child would be expected to walk between 9 and 15 months, and a child that cannot walk by 20 months would be
considered to have a developmental delay.

What causes developmental delay?


Biological- such as genetic or
chromosomal abnormalities
(Downs Syndrome) or illness
and disease



Social- such as a child’s life
experiences or exposure to
harmful chemicals or parenting

Mind Map
Disability

Culture

Genotype
and
Maturation

BIOLOGICAL

Parenting
/parenting
styles
Factors
affecting
development

Approval/
interactions

SOCIAL
Education

Housing
Social
Class

Disease
and
illness

NATURE/NURTURE
DEBATE

Factors that Governs Development:
Education


Education affects children’s physical, emotional intellectual and social development.



Children benefit from larger play spaces and better equipment. This improves coordination and gross motor skills



Children learn to mix and socialise with other children



Staff are trained to promote cognitive development, introducing concepts like numbers and shape



Fine motor skills can be developed through playing with dough, paint and by writing



Can promote self-confidence and esteem



Esteem is linked to a positive education experience: where children are unhappy because they have not made friends, been bullied or are low achieving this can lead to low esteem



Develop a sense of belonging



Stimulating activities such as jigsaws, modelling and books can improve development

Factors that Governs Development:
Culture


A child’s culture can affect their development.



In some cultures girls aren’t encouraged to take part in physical play and activities while boys are encouraged to be outside more and boisterous



Family may be very important. They may spend a lot of time with family members and friends



The importance of play can vary. Some families will place great interest in education and encourage children to do homework



Children who have a wider supportive network can feel more secure



Boys may develop more gross motor skills while girls develop more fine motor skills



Education can be seen as better for boys, or as ‘girlish’. This affects attitudes to learning, concentration and activities children engage in.



Children whose culture is a minority can face discrimination and isolation; this leads to lower self-esteem as they don't have friends or may get bullied



Families differ in the amount of emphasis they place on physical activity and children sitting being taught

Sequential Stages
in Development
THIS WILL EXPLAIN THE SKILLS EMERGE AT CERTAIN POINTS OF
DEVELOPMENT

Psychoanalytic Theories


Psychoanalytic theories are those influenced by the work of
Sigmund Freud, who believed in the importance of the unconscious mind and childhood experiences. Freud's contribution to
developmental theory was his proposal that development occurs through a series of psychosexual stages.
Theorist Erik Erikson expanded upon Freud's ideas by proposing a stage theory of psychosocial development. Erikson's theory focused on conflicts that arise at different stages of development and, unlike Freud's...
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