Infant and early childhood development

Topics: Child development, Developmental psychology, Attachment theory Pages: 24 (3993 words) Published: September 30, 2013
1. General infant development
a. Infant period
i. Neonate/newborn: 28 days of life
ii. Infant: 1 month-1 year
b. Physical changes
i. Greatest period of physical development
ii. Birthweight
1. Avg 7.5-8 lbs
2. Doubles at 6 months
3. Triples at 1 year
4. Growth variations= genetics, nutrition, activity, disease iii. Height
1. 19-21 in
2. Increases 10-12 inch by 1st year
3. Half adult height by 2 years
iv. Head circumference
1. 13-14 inch
2. Fontanels: openings in the baby skull (allows skull to expand) a. Posterior closure at 3 months
b. Anterior closure at 18 months
v. Brain/nervous system
1. Midbrain/medulla: vital functions (HR, RR, sleep/wake, elimination) 2. Cortex: perception, thinking, language, body movement
3. Synaptogenesis: synapses form
a. Brain weight triples by 2 years/quadruples by 4 years
b. Top heavy
4. Pruning: getting rid of extra synapses
a. Greatest plasticity (doesn't get hurt as easily)
b. Vulnerable to deficits w/o stimulation (getting rid of synapses that they need) 5. Myelinization
a. Cephalocaudal/proximodistal development (head to limbs/inside to outside) b. Reticular formation (attention/focus) incomplete until 20s vi. Reflexes
1. Adaptive= survival (sucking)
2. Primitive
a. Immature neuro system
b. Disappear 6-12 months
c. Normal
i. Moro (startle)
ii. Rooting/sucking
iii. Palmer/plantar grasp plantar magnet: baby grabs anything that touches hand/foot iv. Babinski (splaying toes)
v. Tonic neck (fencing): turn head they straighten that arm and bend other arm up vi. Stepping/crawling: hold baby over ground= “step”
vii. Behavioral states
1. 5 sleep/wake cycles--> deep sleep, light sleep, drowsiness, quiet alert (most productive for mom and baby), alert, fussing 2. Repeats every 2 hours
3. Circadian rhythms: begin about 8 weeks
4. 6 months= sleep 14 hours (more regular/predictable)
viii. Gross/fine motor development
1. Bones
a. Ossify from prenatal--> puberty
b. Density required for weight bearing/motor activity
2. Muscles
a. Higher fat to muscle ratio at birth
b. Fat ratio declines by age 1
3. Gross motor: head control, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking 4. Fine motor: use of hands/fingers
ix. Motor developmental milestones
1. Gross motor
a. 1 month= stepping reflex, lifts head/lacks head control and support b. 2-3 month= head control
c. 4-6 month= rolls over, sit supported, head erect, creeps (army crawl--> precrawl) d. 7-9 month= sit unsupported, crawls
e. 10-12 month= pulls up, walks grasping furniture (alone)
2. Fine motor
a. 1 month= grasps object in hand
b. 2-3 month= swipes object in sight
c. 4-6 month= reaches, grasps
d. 7-9 month= hand to hand transfer
e. 10-12 month= hand preference, grasp spoon in palm, poor aim hand to mouth c. Sensory skills
i. Vision
1. Acuity
a. 20/200 at birth
b. 20/20 at 2
2. Sees color at birth--> less complicated pattern is seen better 3. Tracking objects
a. Birth-6 weeks= 8-10 inch
b. Tracks across room by 6-10 weeks
ii. Hearing
1. Better than vision
2. Startle to loud noise
3. Turn/search for sound
a. Get better at locating w/ age
b. 18 months= have adult ability
4. Recognize mother's voice
iii. Smelling--> recognize mother's scent
iv. Taste
1. Distinguish sweet, sour, bitter
2. Salt is first taste in utero
3. Sweet is in breastmilk
v. Touch
1. Best developed sense at birth
2. Touching reflexes sensitive to touch and massage
d. Perceptual skills
i. Development
1. Preference technique: look at 2 pics and see which one infant stares at longer 2. Habituation: show same thing to infant several times--> more times you show infant the less excited they get 3. Dishabituation: show a new toy that's similar to habituation toy--> get excited again 4. Operant conditioning: infant associates toy/noise with something ii. Looking

1. Depth
a. NB scans edges
i. Sees outline of faces
ii. Can't discriminate mom when head is wrapped in scarf
b. 3 months= perceives depth
2. Complex patterns...
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Infancy and Early Childhood Development Essay
  • Infant Development Essay
  • Infancy and Early Childhood Development Essay
  • Infancy and Early Childhood Development Essay
  • Infancy and Early Childhood Development Essay
  • Early Childhood Development Essay
  • Early Childhood Essay
  • Brain Development And Early Childhood Education Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free