John Bowlby was the first psychologist who started an extended study on attachment. According to Bowlby's Attachment Theory, attachment is a ‘lasting psychological connectedness between human beings’. What is attachment- When a person is emotionally bonded with another person then attachment starts. Attachment can be defined as a unique emotional bond held between carer and child. Bowlby believed that early experiences in childhood can have a lasting impression on your development and can affect you later in life. He believed that our attachment styles are influenced by the relationship between care giver and infant. Characteristics of attachment:
Proximity maintenance- The desire to be near people we are attached to Safe haven- Returning to the care giver for comfort and safety after child is faced with a fear or threat Secure base- The attachment figure acts as a base of security from which the child can explore the surrounding environment Separation distress- Anxiety and distress that occurs in the absence of the attachment figure Types of attachment:
1. Secure Attachment- When children are securely attached to their caregivers , they feel happy whenever their caregivers are around, but are upset when they get separated from them. However even in the absent of the parents the child still feels secure and trusts the care giver shall return at some point. 2. Ambivalent Attachment- A child who is ambivalently attached becomes very upset and distressed whenever he gets separated from their parent. The child does not feel that he can rely on his caregiver whenever he is in need of something. 3. Avoidant Attachment- a child who has an avoidant attachment tends to keep away from their parents. They are unable to use parent as a secure base. Some research suggests that this may be a cause of parents who are neglecting or abusing their children. 4. Disorganized Attachment- This is when there is no clear or even mixed attachment between the child and his caregiver. When the parent acts as an hesitant caregiver and a reassuring one at different times, the child may get confused and cause this kind of attachment, re-attachment.
John Bowlby’s ethological theory recognizes the emotional bond to the caregiver as it progresses the response promotes survival. He believed that the attachment to the caregiver was an important effect for the child’s security and ability to form a trusting relationship. But he then stated that ‘feeding is not the basis for attachment’. Mothers who are responsive and attentive to their child’s needs create a sense of security in their children the child knows that the caregiver is dependable, which creates a secure base for the child to then explore the world.
Banduras Social cognitive theory:
Social cognitive theory is basically the theory that humans can learn by observing, imitating and modelling others. The Bobo Doll study
Albbert Bandura and his colleagues were able to demonstrate one of the way in which children learn aggresion through a experiment. The experiment involved exposing children to two different adult models , one being a aggressive model and one being a non aggresive model. After witnessing the adults behaviour the children would then be placed in a room without the model adult and were then observed to see if they would imitate the behaviour they had witnessed earlier. 36 boys and 36 girls aged between 3-6 years participated in this experiment, before they participated Bandura tested the childrens existing levels of aggresion. The results for the Bobo Doll Experiment showed that children who were exposed to the aggressive model were more likely to show copied aggressive behavior themselves. Boys were nearly three times more likely to replicate physically violent behavior than girls. The results for verbally aggressive behavior again showed that children exposed to aggressive role models were more likely to imitate this behavior. Subjects in the Bobo Doll...
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