Level 3 Childcare Unit1

Topics: Developmental psychology, Childhood, Child development Pages: 25 (6772 words) Published: December 18, 2012
Unit 1. Understanding child and young person development.

1. Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth – 19years. The word development refers not to the physical growth of children and young people, but to the skills and knowledge that they are developing. When looking at child development it is divided into the following areas –

Physical Development
Refers to learning how to master physical movement.
Fine motor skills
These involve the small muscles of the body used for hand –eye co-ordination, writing and grasping of small objects.

Gross motor skills
These include the large muscles used for sitting, standing, crawling, and walking.

Locomotive skills
These are part of the gross motor skills using the large muscles for walking, running, skipping, hopping and balance.

Intellectual/Cognitive Development
This refers to the child’s brain becoming more and more able to understand the world around them. It also helps them to remember things and be able to problem solve.

Social and emotional Development
Is about learning to make friends and to co-operate with others and being able to express your emotions and feelings with others.

Moral Development
Is about being able to understand the rules and laws and being able to follow them, it’s also about developing attitudes and behaviour towards other people. The sequence is in the order that children follow each stage and progress. The rate is by age range they will have mostly met these requirements.

Age 0-3
Babies are born with many reflex actions these are actions they preform naturally.

Sucking, swallowing, rooting, grasp reflex, startle.

Recognises mother’s voice and smell.

Crying when hungry tired or distressed.

Close contact between mother and primary carer, especially during feeding.

1 month
Usually babies have settled into a pattern. They sleep a lot but gradually are awake for longer periods of time. They cry to communicate their needs and their parents begin to understand their needs and different types of crying.

Babies looking less startled and start trying to lift their head.

Stops crying when they hear a familiar voice.

Babies coo when contented.

Social/emotional and behavioural
Babies will begin to smile on seeing or hearing a familiar voice and face.

3 months
Babies at 3 months have begun to grow and put on weight; some babies will know the difference between day and night and will sleep mostly through the night. They spend more time awake and are more alert.

They will lift their heads and turn them from side to side.

They will start to follow objects such as mobiles.

Babies will smile back when they see a smiling face.

Social/emotional and behavioural
Babies enjoy bath time.

6 months
At this age babies have learnt many skills. They are more alert. Can lift their heads and turn them. They will reach out for things and explore them with their mouths. Many have moved on from milk to pureed foods and will use their hands to try to feed themselves.

Can lie on their tummies and can lift both their hands and feet up into the air and look like starfish.

Explores toys and objects with their mouths as well as their fingers.

Can and will raise arms to show that they want to be picked up.

Social/emotional and behavioural
Smiles and squeals with delight when playing.

9 months
Babies can sit up without support and will spend time sitting and playing. Language is developing and becoming more tuneful, will also become excited at key words such as ‘dinner’. They will also start to cry when left with strangers...
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