Briefly define the following concepts in relation to classroom management: 1.1 Conflict
Conflict is defined as a challenge to the way a person thinks or behaves. It can be an uncomfortable process for young children, causing one, both, or all children involved uneasiness, fear, or a range of other strong emotions. 1.2 Decision-making
Decision making can be regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a course of action among several alternative scenarios. Every decision making process produces a final choice. The output can be an action or an opinion of choice. Teachers must often choose between different courses to follow and different strategies to follow. 1.3 Communication
Communication is when a teacher gives a lesson to a learner through speech or writing on the board and the recipient responds. 1.4 Motivation
The process through which the teacher provides pupils with motives to encourage them to achieve the goals set for the class. It is also an inner force that drives people to fulfill certain needs. 1.5 Leadership
Leadership consists of actions that help the group to complete its tasks successfully and maintain effective working relationships among its members. Question 2.
2.1 Discuss the following classroom management styles:
2.1.1 Autocratic classroom management style
This is a teacher-centered style where the role and leadership of the teacher play an important part. When dealing with pupil behavior this teacher will intervene and try to control the behavior of the pupils. The teacher is mainly interested in the pupils’ completion of tasks and learning performance. 2.1.2 Democratic classroom management style
It correlates with an interactive teaching style. This teaching style requires that teachers should have a sound knowledge of their subject and of human nature so that they can encourage their pupils to participate actively. The control of pupil behavior is jointly controlled by the teacher and the pupils. 2.2 Describe FIVE styles of conflict management which the educators can use to handle conflict in their classrooms. * Avoidance: avoiding conflict is a short-term solution because the conflict will not go away. Sometimes, however, avoidance could be a temporary measure to calm emotions. * Giving in or accommodating: teachers who badly want the pupils to accept them use this style. With this style the real differences are underemphasized. Sometimes teachers have to give in to avoid hostility in the classroom and to ensure that the work can get done. * Domination: teachers who want to impose their will on pupils use this style. In the long run this style is seldom effective, although teachers sometimes have to dominate. * Compromise or settle: this style is marked by a search for compromises and settlement. The teacher will try to meet everyone halfway and to let the majority view prevail. Because a settlement might not satisfy everybody, the dissatisfaction could again cause conflict at a later stage. * Integrate or collaborate: this style is also known as the problem-solving approach. The parties cooperate in order to find a satisfactory solution. 2.3 Structural aspects and human relations in the classroom affect the way in which pupils perceive the classroom atmosphere. Pupils’ perceptions of interpersonal relations and order in the classroom cultivate a particular atmosphere. Teachers can combine the structural and human relations aspects by managing their classrooms effectively in order to create a positive atmosphere. The responsibility of a teacher can be described as follows: It is the teacher’s role to establish and maintain a positive learning environment that has structure, expectations and consistent enforcement of those expectations. It is also necessary that the environment be warm and supportive, demonstrating care and concern about children. A proper balance between the structural and the human relations...
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