Pre-school education

Topics: Child development, Developmental psychology, Human development Pages: 5 (1281 words) Published: November 5, 2013
Preschool education
Right now we are talking about preschool education. Later on it’s going to be about school education – school pedagogy. The aim of this course is to acquire knowledge about essential meaning of children development and education, their body, mutual interactions in environment and – most of all – adults direct influence on their development and education. So it’s about physical, intelectual and moral development, which is affected by many, many different things (relationships at home, social setting etc. ) and as a result the personality of a person is formed. The factors of the development of personality – heredity, environment, education and self-education. Children age stages (periodization)

Infants (0-1 year of age)
Toddlers (1-3 years of age)
Preschoolers (3-7 years of age)
Junior school age (7-11 years of age)
Teens (Middle School age) (12-15 (16) years of age)
Teens ( also School age) (15(16)-18 years of age)

If we know significant features of each stage, we can choose suitable methods and forms of education and development of children. The speed of development is different for each child and it depends on variety of factors. Boys and girls develop in different speed. It depends on age too. If child is younger he/she developes faster. Some parts of body evolve faster (head), some slower.

The development and education of an infant (0-1)

At the beginning the most importans is to meet the needs of an infant (food, sleep, temperature etc.). Later he/she shows a need for talks, games, reading, singing to him/her – they need contact with people, security, love. They start to improve their movements, which is important for the development of their thinking. Also habits and daily regime can start to create an infants character. First they start to express emotions with a smile (weeks 3-5), later (month 2 - 3) they start to expres it with some sounds and move their legs and arms vigorously, finally (month 4) they start to laugh. Physical development:

Weight – 3200- 3600g
Height – 48-54cm
In first few months it is advisable to feed baby 6-7 times a day and let he/she sleep 19-20 hours a day. Later these numbers can fall to 4-5 meals a day and 15 hours of sleep. It’s necessary to help them move – do exercises, move their arms and legs, help them sit, massage them. They need fresh air, sunlight, water.

Month 1 – an infant starts to lift a head and can hold it like that for a while Month 3 – he/she starts to roll around, hold a body on elbows Month 4 - an infant starts to sit
Month 5 – one start to crawl around
Month 6 (7) – he/she crawls around and can sit without assistance Month 7 (8) – first steps
Intelectual development:
It’s important to develop senses (sight, hearing, taste, smell, touch, balance, coordination, pain, temperature etc.). Thinking must be developed too (observation, concentration, see differences between objects and actions etc.) They are improving their language – listening to adults, trying to repeat sounds, words Stages of languege development:

Month 3 – throat sounds
Month 5 – some vowels
Month 7 (10) – syllables
Month 12 – they use ~ 30 words, but they know the meaning just to 10- 12 of them It is important to evolve their esthetic feelings

The development and education of a toddler (1-3)

Children start to know the world – they can walk ant talk and it gives a variety of new opportunities to explore everything. They start to play with toys, play games, draw etc. They start to be aware of their Ego and independence. But at the same time it’s important to help them, to be involved, to lead and organize or else some difficulties with their behaviour may occur later. Physical development:

Weight 11-13 kg
Height – 77—88cm
It’s important to make sure they are walking righ, they have no physical problems, they are phisically active (games with ball, jumping, running etc.) They want to eat using all the instruments, get dressed, daraw, open,...
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