PYC2602 NOTES

Topics: Developmental psychology, Genetics, Erikson's stages of psychosocial development Pages: 10 (2965 words) Published: April 30, 2014
PYC2602 - Summary of A child's world - Papalia et al Cpts 1,2,3 THE STUDY OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT: BASIC CONCEPTS

THE STUDY OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT: THEN AND NOW
• Child Development:Scientific study of processes of change & stability in human children. • Quantative change
Change in number/amount eg height, size of vocabulary, frequency of communication tends to be continuous
• Qualitative change
Change in kind, structure & organization
Discontinuous
Marked by the emergence of new phenomena that cannot be easily anticiped on the basis of earlier functioning, eg change from non-verbal to verbal communication • Constancy
Most people show underlying stability in certain aspects

EARLY APPROACHES
• Baby Biographies - Forerunners of scientific study
- Journals recording the development of a single child
- Speculative nature
• Darwin - 1st emphasized developmental nature of infant behavior
Gave baby biographies scientific respectability
p7
DOMAINS OF DEVELOPMENT
• Physical Development • Growth of body & brain
Development of sensory capacity & motor skills
Health
• Cognitive Development • Change & stability in mental abilities
eg learning, memory, language, thinking,
moral reasoning, creativity.
• Psychosocial Development • Change & stability in personality, emotions & social relationships.
All these influence each other

INFLUENCES ON DEVELOPMENT
HEREDITY, ENVIRONMENT & MATURATION
• Heredity • Inborn traits inherited from biological parents • Environment • World outside self, beginning in the womb
The learning that comes from experience
Includes socialization: The child’s induction into the value system of a culture • Maturation • Unfolding of a typical, universal, natural sequence of physical changes & behavior patterns.
(including a readiness to master new abilities)
Maturational processes act in concert with heredity & the environment

CONTEXTS OF DEVELOPMENT
• Human beings are social • Develop in a social & historical context • Immediate context • Family
Neighborhood
Community
Society
p13
Family
• Nuclear Family • 2-generational kinship, economic & household unit
1 or 2 parents with their biological/adopted/step-children
Dominant unit in Western societies
• Extended Families • Multigenerational kinship network
Adults often share breadwinning & child raising
Children are responsible for younger siblings
Often headed by women
esp in Asia, Africa & Latin-America

Socioeconomic Status(SES) & Neighborhood
• SES • Income, education & occupation
Related to developmental processes & outcomes
Affects developmental outcomes indirectly, through associated factors:
○ Kinds of homes & neighborhoods
○ Quality of Nutrition, medical care, supervision & schooling
○ Available opportunities
• Poverty • Harmful to physical, cognitive & psychosocial well-being
Kids more likely to have emotional & behavioral problems
Cognitive potential & school performance suffers
Harm can be indirect via emotional state of parents & parenting practices • Rich kids • Under pressure to achieve & often unsupervised
Substance abuse, anxiety & depression
• Composition of a neighborhood • Influences how kids turn out p14

Culture & Race/Ethnicity
• Difficult to present a comprehensive picture of cultural differences:
Minorities are underrepresented in developmental research
Complications in defining cultural & ethnic identities • Culture • A society/group’s way of life
Customs, Traditions, Laws, Beliefs, Values, Language, Physical products
All of the behaviors & attitudes that are learned, shared & transmitted
among members
• Ethnic group • A people united by culture, ancestry, religion, language and/or national origin.
∴ Sense of shared identity
•...
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