QCF Level 5 507

Topics: Developmental psychology, Social work, Child development Pages: 10 (6609 words) Published: January 26, 2015

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QCF Title and Level: Health and Social Care, Diploma Level 5 CYP

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Unit numbers:507
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!. Understand theoretical approaches to child and young person development

1.1 Explain different theories and frameworks of child and young person development

There are several different theories and frameworks relating to child development, these are as follows: Theories:
Cognitive: This theory describes the basic stages of development that a child will go through from birth and how these can have an impact on the rest of their life. these are:
The sensor motor stage: this is a period of time between birth and the age of two, during this time an infant’s knowledge of the world is limited to his or her sensory perceptions and motor activities, Behaviours are limited to simple motor responses caused by sensory stimuli. The concrete operational stage: This is a period between the ages of seven and eleven during which children gain a better understanding of mental operations. Children begin thinking logically about concrete events, but have difficulty understanding abstract or hypothetical concepts. The formal operational stage: This is a period between age twelve to adulthood when people develop the ability to think about abstract concepts. Skills such as logical thought, deductive reasoning and systematic planning also emerge during this stage. Psychoanalytic -This is a theory by Freud, which is based on how the human mind functions. Freud believed that there were factors outside of the individual person’s awareness (unconscious thoughts, feelings and experiences) that influence their emotions, behaviour and actions, and that their past experiences/feelings shape their future. The Psychoanalytical theory highlights the importance of the unconscious mental processes and childhood development issues as they relate to childish impulses, childish wishes and juvenile desires. Humanist -The humanistic perspective was developed by Key therapists Maslow 1994 and Rogers 1954 and focuses on the positive image of what it means to be human. Human nature is viewed as basically good, and humanistic theorists focus on methods that allow fulfillment of potential, this approach is at times referred to as child centered or student centered approach. Social Learning-The social learning theory was developed by Albert Bandura (1977), he thought that behaviour is learned from the young persons environment through the process of observational learning, meaning a child will observe the actions or behaviours of the people around them and may choose to copy or imitate these behaviours, also this can be reinforced by other peoples’ reactions to their behaviour, for example if a young child is cuddling a doll and an adult or a person of influence or importance to them gives them verbal praise by saying “oh you are a caring girl” then the child is likely to display this behaviour again. Operant conditioning -Operant conditioning is termed as use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form behaviour. Meaning that behaviour that is followed by pleasant consequences tends to be repeated and thus is learned. Behaviour that is followed by unpleasant consequences tends not to be repeated and thus not learned” (Alberto & Troutman, 2006). Operant conditioning is specifically limited to voluntary behaviour, that is, emitted responses, which distinguishes it from respondent or Pavlovian conditioning, which is limited to reflexive behaviour (or elicited responses). Behaviourist -This theory focuses on how environmental interaction influences behaviour and are based...
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