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Rationality, Morality and Identity
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Rationality, Morality and Identity
University of Nebraska—Lincoln
LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOCIATES, PUBLISHERS
Mahwah, New Jersey
Copyright © 2005 by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by photostat, microform, retrieval system, or any other means, without prior written permission of the publisher.
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers
10 Industrial Avenue
Mahwah, New Jersey 07430
Cover design by Sara Moshman
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Moshman, David. Adolescent psychological development: rationality, morality, and identity / David Moshman.—2nd ed.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-8058-4829-0 (cloth : alk. paper)
ISBN 0-8058-4830-4 (pbk.: alk. paper)
1. Adolescent psychology—Textbooks. I. Title.
Books published by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates are printed on acidfree paper, and their bindings are chosen for strength and durability. Printed in the United States of America
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
To Eric and Michael,
adolescents past and present
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Introduction: Development, Psychology, and Adolescence
The Nature of Development xv
Psychological Development xvii
Adolescent Psychological Development xx
I. Cognitive Development
Piaget's Theory of Formal Operations
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
Piaget's Theory of Formal Operations 7
Research on Formal Operations
The Nature of Rationality
Postformal Reasoning 17
Scientific Reasoning 20
Epistemic Cognition 27
Universality and Diversity 33
The Construction of Rationality
The Construction of Metalogical Understanding 36
The Construction of Metasubjective Objectivity 40
Reflection, Coordination, and Peer Interaction 45
II. Moral Development
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development
Female Circumcision: A Case Study in Culture and Morality 49
Moral Rationality 50
Piaget's Theory of Moral Development 52
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development 54
Research on Kohlberg's Theory 57
The Nature of Morality
Conceptions of the Moral Domain 60
Prosocial Conceptions of Morality as Care 60
Eudaimonist Conceptions of Morality as Virtue 62
Cultural Differences in Conceptions of the Moral Domain
The Construction of Morality
Moral Reasoning and Moral Development 70
A Pluralist Conception of Moral Development 71
III. Identity Formation
Erikson's Theory of Identity Formation
Erikson's Theory of Personality Development 80
Erikson's Theory of Adolescent Identity Formation 82
Marcia's Theory of Identity Formation 83
The Nature of Identity
Identity as a Theory of Oneself 89
Gender, Culture, and Identity 93
Domains of Identity 97
The Construction of Identity
Developmental Process 99
Discovery or Creation 101
Ethnic Identity 104
Sexual Identity 107
IV. Advanced Psychological Development
10 Rational Moral Identity
Moral Rationality 115
Rational Identity 117
Moral Identity 121
Rational Moral Identity 123
1 1 Pluralist Rational Constructivism
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