1. Summarise the main development of a child from the age range 0 – 2 years, 3 – 5 years and 5 – 8 years.
Development is the process of learning new skills in all areas of life. When we talk about child development we use the baseline of an 'average child'. Most children will go through the same stages of development but not necessarily at the same age/time. Some children may miss a stage altogether e.g. Missing out crawling and going straight to walking. When thinking about child development, although we use the 'average child' as a baseline we must also remember each child is unique and we must consider their developmental process on an individual level. There are different types of development for children and young people and although I am going to look at each one separately, it is important to remember that they will all be interlinked with each other. Child development should be looked at in a holistic way as each developmental area affects another.
Children's intellectual development will depend greatly on the opportunities that they are given to learn and on the experiences they receive. Each child is unique, so a task that one child finds easy another may experience difficulty with. It is important to remember that every child has their own strengths. Intellectual development 0 – 2 years
Children at this young age learn and explore with their hands and mouth. They will grasp objects, shake them and learn to throw and drop at will. These children are constantly looking at the world around themselves to learn new skills. They will enjoy nursery rhymes and songs with repetitive actions where they can learn to predict the outcome. Children will use adults as role models and copy them in order to learn how to use every-day objects e.g. spoon, cup, hair brush. By age 2 children will know the names of various objects and be able to point to that specific item. ¹'Between 1 and 2 years they will start to put words together, and their vocabulary will start to increase fairly rapidly so that by 2 years most children will have about 200 words.'(Burnham and Baker 2010).
Intellectual development 3 – 5 years
Children of this age will be gaining confidence in their speech. They will begin to recognise colours and begin to understand the concept of counting and number, as well has have a basic understanding of time e.g. past, future, now, soon, next etc. Children in this age group will be expanding their vocabulary quickly so that by age 5 they will know a few thousand words. They will also ask lots of question (parents and practitioners will be familiar with the why? Question every few minutes). Intellectual development 5 – 8 years
These school age children will begin to develop quickly. They will begin to develop ideas about areas they enjoy the most and how they can please the adults around them, as they are still looking for adult approval. At age 5 they are beginning to read and write themselves and by age 8 will have developed their reading and writing skills to a much higher level. Their maths concepts will improve and they are learning to count into the hundreds, plus learning simple multiplication.
Children will develop some aspects of their physical development automatically as they grow. However, they will also need opportunities for challenges in a supportive environment so as to develop skills further and keep them safe. Physical development 0 – 2 years
Between the ages of 0-2 children's physical development is great. As babies they have little control over their bodies but as they get older they begin to be able to control their movements. Young babies will try to imitate facial expressions and will develop social smiles. Control over their mouths will begin and babbling will ensue. This will lead to copying noises and eventually to speech. By 2 years children will be able to respond to simple words and phrases. At 1 year children will have some control over...
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