TDA 2.1 (1.1) The expected pattern of children and young people's development from birth to 19 years old.

Topics: Developmental psychology, Child development, The Age Pages: 21 (7657 words) Published: March 10, 2014
TDA 2.1 (1.1)Abbie Oldfield
Stages of Development
Birth
Physical Development:
At birth, babies lie on their back with their head to one side, also known as the Supine position. When they are on their front, they have their head to one side and tend to stick their bum out and tuck their knees in. When a baby is held up by a hand, their head drops back and they partly bend their arms and legs. Babies often have their hands tightly closed, clenched in a fist with their thumb tucked in under their fingers. Sensory Development:

A baby will stare at bright shiny objects, and blink in response to the sound of a particular movement. They recognise their carer’s voice, but can’t hear sounds that are too soft, and are startled by loud ones. Babies also open their eyes and quieten when they are held upright. They prefer to be held close, comforted, stroked or rocked and enjoy skin-to-skin contact. Reflexes:

When anything is put into a baby’s mouth, they will automatically suck and attempt to swallow it. When just one side of the cheek or mouth is touched they will immediately turn their heads in search for food. If you place your finger or an object into the baby’s hand, it causes automatic grip, and pulling away will make the baby’s grasp even stronger. When held upright, tilting forward, with their feet on a firm surface, babies will make stepping movements. This reflex is present from birth up to 2-3 months and will disappear until they are ready to walk later on. Cognitive:

Babies will recognise when they are hungry, tired or upset, and will indicate this by crying. Communication and Language:
Babies will cry to indicate a need that they want, but it is non-specific and you can never always tell what they are in need of. They synchronize actions to the sound of the carer’s voice, and often imitate people with things such as sticking their tongue out. Babies will also make eye contact with people, and look towards the direction of a sound. Personal, Social and Emotional Development:

They enjoy feeding and cuddling.
Babies often imitate most facial expressions.
They use total body movements to express happiness and pleasure, at times when being fed or bathed. Begin to smile in definite response to the carer at around 5-6 weeks.

One month
Physical Development:
At one month, babies keep their head to one side when lying on their back (supine) with the arm and leg on the face side outstretched, the knees apart, and the soles of the feet turned inwards. They are able to turn from the side to their back (vice versa). They can lift their heads briefly from prone position.

When they are held in ventral suspension, they will keep the head in line with the body, and their hips will be semi-extended. Babies will start to open their hands more often rather than clenching them in a fist the majority of the time, and will also start to bring their fists towards their mouth. When pulled into a sitting position they will still show head lag. They begin to have jerky arm and leg movements which are uncontrolled. Babies show interest of excitement which is visible through their facial expressions. They also open their hands to grasp them around and adult’s finger. Sensory Development:

Babies at one month begin to repeat enjoyable movements, such as sucking their thumb. They coo, gurgle and smile when they are happy, and often show this when they recognise a primary carer. Communication and Language Development:

At one month, babies start to make non-crying noises, such as cooing and gurgling. They learn to cry in more expressive ways.
They tend to interact with adults that are holding them face-to-face, by simultaneously looking, listening, vocalising, and moving their arms and legs excitedly. They can also imitate adults and others more specifically and clearly than before.

Personal, Social and Emotional Development:
By one month, babies often smile in response to an adult, and more specifically...
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