TDA Unit 2.1 Child and Young Person Development
Describe the expected pattern of children and young people’s development from birth to 19 years to include Physical Development
Communication and Intellectual Development
Social, emotional and behavioural Development
There are expected patterns of development for children from birth to 19 years old. Although all children are individuals and unique and there are factors which can have a bearing on development such as health, environment and home life and parenting these milestones happen naturally. The patterns start from birth with new-born babies having very little control of their bodies and are totally dependent. Up to 1 month old, a baby can focus both eyes and use different facial expressions. They will be able to turn their head towards the source of a sound and detect smells for example the smell of milk from their mother’s breast. A sucking reflex is also present allowing baby to take milk from the breast or bottle. By 2-3 months a baby will be able to mimic a smile from a familiar face for example when a parent or sibling smiles they can usually smile back as well as being able to imitate some movements and facial expressions. Due to strengthened neck muscles, a baby of 2-3 months old will be able to hold their head up for short periods of time which will move onto having more control over their head and arm movements allowing them to reach, grasp and put objects their mouth and will investigate/explore objects by shaking, hitting, turning, dropping and throwing them- this usually happens by 6 months old. By now they would also have enough grip and coordination to hold their own bottle. At around 7-9 months having gained muscle strength they become a lot more mobile and should be able to sit unaided and crawl or bottom shuffle. By 10-12 months they can stand and mimic simple actions. As they pass their first birthday and towards 1½ we refer to them as toddlers because they can toddle around in their own way and should be able to walk unaided. This extra coordination, ability to judge distance and having more control over their gross motor skills helps to enable them to feed themselves. By 2-2½ a toddler will now be much more adventurous and can run and will start toilet training as they gain an awareness of their bodily functions. It is around this time that they will start to dress themselves using not just their hands but their fingers to grip buttons, zips and Velcro straps. By 3 years old they can jump which then by 4-5 years develops into the ability to skip. Their fine motor skills will have developed enough to use crayons, pens and pencils to colour and form letters by copying. The majority of children start school when they are 4 years old and they go through many physical changes. By 6 years old many children can dribble a ball with one hand. Most learn how to ride a two-wheel bike and they become more skilful at skipping with a rope and catching and throwing a ball. Children of this age like to move. Many become restless and wiggle if they sit for too long, which is why school can be difficult for some children at this age. At this stage in their development they may practice balancing a lot. They balance on curbs, chairs, and other high places and is all part of becoming more adventurous this usually continues up to the age of 9 years old with more control and developed gross motor skills. By 10-14 children physically develop at different stages. Puberty, has five stages for both boys and girls, which is why you’ll see them developing at different rates between the ages of 8 and 18. Girls grow breasts, their hips expand and their menstrual cycles begin and boys shoulders widen and their chests expand. They become prone to spots due to increased oil in their skin and hormones. Both sexes are more prone to gaining weight. With growth spurts comes clumsiness and a lack of coordination. With growth...
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