Summarise the main development of a child from the age range 0-2 years, 3-5 years and 5-8 years. There are five stages of development that a child experiences. These are ;
Development refers to the process of learning new skills and abilities, and acquiring emotional maturity *. All children grow and develop at different rates, but there are certain stages of development that they should reach at a particular age (give or take a few months or so). This is to ensure that they are growing and maturing in the right direction, so as to progress with their skills and abilities. When we talk about the development of children they are often referred to the ‘average’ child. There is no such thing as the ‘average’ child, each child will grow and develop at their own pace, and therefore may be a little bit quicker/slower at reaching certain stages in their development. Physical development
0-2 years - For the first 3 months of a baby’s life they will lie on their back and be able to kick their legs, towards the end of 3 months they will be able to watch their own hands and play with their finger, often with the fingers ending up in their mouths. They will also turn their heads towards the breast for feeding. As time progresses they will be able to control their head movements more, grasp objects and move the object from one hand to the other. *Berk L (2005). Infant, Children, and Adolescents. Boston: Allyn & Bacons Usually at around 9-12 months they will become mobile, either by shuffling, crawling or rolling, and be able to sit up unaided. By the age of one most babies will be able to climb stairs (supervised). By the age of two they should be very mobile, walking, running, and will be able to throw and kick a ball. 3-5 years - By the age of three they will have mastered most methods of movement, running, walking backwards and forwards as well as moving from side to side. At the age of four they should be able to throw and catch a ball and be more confident with their balance. 5-8 years - By the time a child reaches the age of five they should have the skills to use a variety of equipment, and be able to play ‘simple’ ball games and dance to music. Their motor skills will have improved so that their drawings will resemble actual objects/animals or whatever it is that they have drawn. Eight year olds should have the confidence and ability to ride a bike without stabilisers, as their balance and agility will have increased immensely at this age. Intellectual Development
0-2 years - Babies will instinctively ‘root’ towards the smell of the breast. From 3 months they will start to reach out for objects and enjoy bright colours. Soon they will be able to take part in simple peek-a-boo games as they need more stimuli to keep them amused. From 9 months they have the ability to remember things. They will enjoy imitating people around them, i.e. waving, clapping hands, laughing or crying. By the age of one their intellectual development will have increased greatly, and by the age of two will be playing ‘pretend’ play. 3-5 years - Three year olds will develop their ‘pretend’ play into more complex play, as their concentration increases. At the age of four they become aware of the past and what may happen in the future. They will also be able to do more intricate things, like threading beads onto a string. As they reach the age of five they become more aware of numeracy and literacy. 5-8 years - Most five year olds are very confident with their counting and can recognise simple words. They are interested in everything and will ask endless questions. Six to eight year olds reading and mathematical skills will have increased immeasurably and they should be able to read and write without too much help. Language Development
0-2 years - Babies recognise and respond to sound, even though they can only communicate by crying,...
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