Development is complex changes including an increase in new skills and abilities such as talking walking writing and smiling. All children are individuals so although they will go through the same stages of development ,they will not necessarily do so at the same time. As practitioners,we should not consider any child to be average,but focus on the child as a whole. There are four stages of human growth patterns. These are childhood(which in four stages is known as Infancy,early childhood, pre school and school age).Adolescence,Adulthood and later adulthood. There are also five key stages of development that take place during the first eight years of a child's life. These are Physical,intellectual,language,emotional and social. Physical development
This refers to the body increasing in skills and performance and includes: gross motor development (large muscles) legs,arms
fine motor skills (precise use of muscles) hands,fingers.
Fine manipulative skills
Gross motor skills
Picks up objects with thumb and forefinger, picking up and holding toys,pointing to objects,holding cup with help,putting small objects in a container. Mobile,some crawling,rolling,shuffling,sitting up unsupported for long periods,walking with assistance,trying to crawl upstairs.
Holding and drinking from a cup with 2 hands,building tower with 2 blocks,making marks with crayons,tries to turn pages in a book. Seating self in small chair, walking independently,crawling downstairs feet first. 18 months
Stringing 4 large beads, turning door handles, pulling off shoes. Squatting to look at things, bending down from waist to pick up things, rolling and throwing a ball, walking downstairs with adult help, rolling and throwing a ball. 2 years
Starting to use preferred hand, building tower with 5 or 6 blocks, drawing circles and dots, putting on shoes, placing 5 rings on a stick, using a spoon to feed self. Climbing on furniture, kicking a stationary ball, putting together and pulling apart snap-on toys, walking up and downstairs with confidence. 3 years
Putting on and taking off coat, washing and drying hands with help, using a spoon without spilling, drawing a face, turning pages in a book one by one. Peddling and steering a tricycle, jumping from low steps, kicking ball forward, throwing large ball, walking on tip-toes, walking and running forwards. 4 years
Putting together a 12 piece jigsaw, drawing a person with head, trunk and legs, cutting out simple shapes, buttoning and unbuttoning own clothes. Pedaling and steering a tricycle, hopping on one foot, running and changing direction, bouncing and catching a large ball, aiming and throwing a ball, walking on a line. 5 years
Drawing around a template, cutting out shapes accurately, completing 20 piece jigsaw, dressing and undressing easily, colouring in neatly, drawing recognising objects and people, forming letters, writing own name. Hitting ball with bat or stick, throwing large ball to partner and catching it, using swings, slides, skipping with a rope. 6-8 years
Tying and untying laces, making a simple sandwich, drawings are detailed and representative, handwriting is evenly spaced and may be joined, sewing simple stitches, cutting out precisely. Balancing on a beam or a wall, kicking a ball with direction, hopping, skipping, jumping, chasing and dodging others, running, riding a bicycle without stabilisers.
Social and Emotional
This is the development of a child's identity and self image – the development of relationships and feelings about him or herself. Age
Social /Emotional development
Birth to 4 weeks
Sleeps most of time, expression vague, becomes more alert, stops crying when spoken to and picked up, will imitate facial expressions, turns to speaker's face, stars at bright shiny objects. 1 month
Gazes intently at carers.
Social smile at carers.
Fixes on carer's face when feeding, smiles and engages with carers, reacts to...
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