A RESEARCH PAPER ON COMMUNITY FORMATION OF TRANSGENDERS
Submitted to : Professor Kannan, Department of Sociology, TNNLS Submitted by : Reuben Philip Abraham Roll No.: 48
Class : 1 st Year Semester : 1
The Tamil Nadu National Law School
AIM AND OBJECTIVES :
This research paper is an attempt to understand the concepts of the early stage of a transgender and how they slowly develop and gets attached to the larger community, also an insight into the life they lead , the violence they face. RESEARCH ISSUES :
What are the different stages that a transgender go through in their early life? What do the transgenders do for a living?
How are the transgenders victims of violence and discrimination? SCOPE AND LIMITATION
This research paper is limited in the sense that it mainly tries to understand the early life and different stages of a transgender and give an outline on the life they lead. SOURCE :
The researcher has primarily referred to secondary sources such as books and articles while writing this research paper. MODE OF CITATION :
A uniform mode of citation has been used throughout this research paper which is based loosely on the style prescribed in The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation.
Most of us, at some point or the other, have encountered eunuchs, or Hijras or Kinnars as they are called, in trains, crowded streets or subways clapping loudly, singing, dancing and taking baksheesh in exchange for blessings. Unfortunately, that is only how far our knowledge goes about them. What is even more unforgivable is that we refuse to see beyond those ridiculed faces and notice that there is more to them than this stereotyped image. Eunuchs, or hijras as we Indians call them, are of course victims of social narrow-mindedness. Cast out for a fault not of their own, they are the hated beings of our society. 1Currently, there are approximately 50,000 to 1.2 million hijras in India. Ostracized since birth, they are forced to create a marginalized community of their own, to live at the fringes of society. This marginalization does not ’just happen’. It is done by all of us ‘normal’ people, daily. They are a victims of violence , injustice, discrimination or in other words their life has turned out to be a living hell. The coming out of these transgendered community , the early stages , how they realize they are different have been explored in this paper.
INTRODUCTION Identity is constructed within a range of potential social options. The dominant Western system of gender has made it difficult for those whose gender falls somewhere between or outside of the binary system to understand and accept themselves or to be recognized as socially legitimate. Gender is achieved in social interaction with others, and to achieve accountability as a social actor, one must enact gender in ways that are socially recognizable and decodeable . But gender is also "a feature of social relationships, and its idiom derivesf rom the institutional arena in which those relationships come to life". Further, gender and gender belief systems are inherent components of the social infrastructure. Consequently, gender- and we would argue, gender identity-is learned and achieved at the interactional level, reified at the cultural level, and institutionally enforced via the family, law, religion, politics, economy, medicine, and the media. Gender identity is established early in life. As an internalized...
Bibliography: List of scholarly articles referred to :
1. Witnessing and Mirroring: A fourteen stage model of transsexual identity formation
Author : Aaron H. Devor, PhD
Available at : http://web.uvic.ca/~ahdevor/Witnessing.pdf
2. Are they not humans?
Author : Abhishek Kumar Jha
Available at : http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1990256
List of websites referred to :
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