1. Briefly describe Tuckman’s five-stage theory.
Tuckman hypothesized five stages of behaviors in a group: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. The forming stage is a period of uncertainty in which members try to determine their place in a group and what the rules are. Conflicts arise during the storming stage as member’s rebel against the task at hand. During the norming stage the group establishes a common ground regarding roles structure and norms in appropriate behavior. In the performing stage, the groups patterns in working together become more flexible and achieve their goals more proficiently. In the adjourning stage the group disbands.
Group Dynamics, David W. Johnson and Frank P. Johnson. Page 27
2. List and briefly discuss the three criteria that need to be met so that competition can be constructive. Competition tends to be more constructive when:
1. Winning is relatively unimportant. When winning is relatively unimportant it promotes fun engagement with the other competitors and they find other constructive ways to achieve their goal. 2. All participants have a reasonable chance to win. Individuals who believe that they will not win typically won’t try and will have less interest and enjoyment in the experience.
3. There are clear and specific rules, procedures, and criteria for winning. When in competition ambiguity interferes with achievement, when energy is directed towards what is fair and unfair.
(Group Dynamics page 113 Johnson and Johnson, 1974-2009b)
3. Discuss the relevance of gatekeepers in one-way communication. When you have a classroom full of people and the teacher gives one person (gatekeeper) to pass the message on to the rest of the class it’s up to the gatekeeper to relay the message in an understandable message. Eventually the message will come back to the gatekeeper and it most of the time will come back garbled and usually won’t make sense. Because a lot of the people in the class...
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