Understand Child and Young Person Development

Topics: Developmental psychology, Jean Piaget, Child development Pages: 24 (7997 words) Published: January 8, 2013

Physical Development

AGE| |
0-3 MONTHS| * Sleeps much of the time * Tries to lift head * Starts to kick legs and movements gradually become smoother * Starts to wave arms about * Begins to hold objects when placed in hand * Grasp reflex diminishes as hand and eye co-ordination begins to develop * Enjoys finger play * Learns to roll from side to back * Sees best at a distance of 25cm then gradually starts watching objects further away * Needs opportunity to play and exercise (soft toys, cloth books, play mat)| 3-9 MONTHS| * Establishes head control; moves head round to follow people and objects * Begins to sit with support; from about 6 months sits unsupported * Rolls over * May begin to crawl, stand and cruise while holding on to furniture (from about 6 months) * Learns to pull self up to sitting position * Begins to use palmer grasp and transfers objects from one hand to the other * Develops pincer grasp using thumb and index finger (from about 6 months) * Continue to enjoy finger rhymes * Drop things deliberately and searches for hidden/dropped objects (from about 8 months) * Puts objects into containers and takes them out * Enjoy water play in bath * Needs opportunities for play and exercise (board books, bricks, containers, activity centres)| 9-18 MONTHS| * Is now very mobile (crawls, bottom shuffle, cruises and walks) * Starts to go upstairs (with supervision) but has difficulty coming down * Needs safe environment in which to explore as becomes increasingly mobile (safety gates) * Throws toys deliberately * Watches ball roll towards self and pushes it back * Has mature pincer grasp and can scribble with crayons * Points to objects using index finger * Places one or more brick on top of each other to make a small tower * Hold a cup and tries to feed self * Continues to enjoy finger rhymes plus simple action songs * Needs space, materials and opportunities to play alongside other children| 18 MONTHS – 2 YEARS| * Starts to use potty but has difficulty keeping dry * Can feed self * Walks well and tries to run but has difficulty stopping * Comes downstairs with help * Learns to push a pedal less tricycle or sit and ride toy * Tries to throw a ball but has difficulty catching * Bends down to pick things up * Uses several bricks to build tower * Continues to scribble and can do simple jig saw puzzles * Enjoys action songs and rhymes * Needs space, materials and opportunities to play alongside other children| 2 – 3 YEARS| * Uses potty and stays dry more reliably * Comes downstairs in upright position one stair at a time * Starts to climb well on play apparatus * Kicks a ball, learns to jump and may learn to somersault * Learns to pedal a tricycle * Can undress self; tries to dress but needs help, especially with socks and fastenings * Has increased control of crayons and paintbrush; tries to use scissors * Enjoys construction activities and can build more complex structures| 3 – 5 YEARS| * Usually clean and dry but may have the occasional accident * Able to run well and stop * Competent at gross motor skills such as jumping, riding a tricycle, climbing and using a swing * Throws and catches a ball but is still inaccurate * Fine motor skills improve – can use scissors, fork and spoon * Enjoys simple singing and dancing games * Plays co-operatively with other children| 5 – 7 YEARS| * Can dress and undress but may need help with intricate fastenings and shoe laces * More proficient at climbing, running, jumping and balancing * Has some difficulty with hopping and skipping * Improved ball skills but still learning to use a bat * Learning to ride bicycle...

References: Kamen, T (2008) Teaching Assistants Handbook, Oxon: Hodder Education
Meggitt, Kamen, Bruce & Grener (2011) CASHE Level 3 Diploma Children and Young People’s Workforce, early learning and childcare, Oxon: Hodder Education
(2012) The British Humanistic Association, available at: http:/www.humanism.org.uk(accessed: 14 September 2012)
Birth.com.au, available at: http:/www.birth.com.au(accessed: 5 November 2012
(2012) Department for education, available at: http:/www.education.gov.uk/children and young people (accessed: 5 November 2012
Children’s development is monitored continuously by doctors and health visitors in a number of ways. These can include examinations at regular health checks, filling in health questionnaires and sometimes through screening tests.
In the educational setting children’s development is also monitored. This can be done in a formal way such as spelling and reading tests or maybe SAT’s and GCSE’s for older children. Careful observations can be a more informal way to make objective assessments of a child’s behaviour pattern, learning style, level of development, curriculum strength and weaknesses. These observations can be done in several ways including tick box check lists and time samples, the information can then be used to plan appropriate learning activities.
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