UNDERSTANDING CHILD AND YOUNG PERSON DEVELOPMENT FROM BIRTH TO 19 YEARS DEVELOPMENT: should be viewed in a holistic way; every child is unique and will develop in their own way. Skills and areas of development often overlap with one another. MAIN AREAS OF DEVELOPMENT:
fine motor skills: ( writing, threading, cutting, painting and drawing) •
gross motor skills: (balance, running, jumping, skipping, hopping) •
Developing creative and imaginative skills
Using language to explain reasoning
Using skills in different ways
COMMUNICATION AND LANGUAGE:
Using language to explain reasoning
SOCIAL, BEHAVIOURAL AND MORAL:
Developing social skills
Co-operation with other
Development of self-esteem and self-expression
Learning about the feelings of others
0 -3 YRS
3 – 7 YRS
7 – 12YRS
12 – 16 YRS
16 – 19 YRS Newborn babies: have
little control over their bodies. Movement dependent on series of survival reflexes; sucking, grasping. 1st year: start to gain more control over their bodies; develop some mobility; crawling or rolling. 2nd year: most start to walk, use their hands to hold small objects, dress and feed themselves, pointing, play ball. Enjoy looking at and turning pages in books.
More co-ordinated; running, hopping, kicking a ball, using larger equipment. More control over fine motor skills: writing, using a cup, drawing and cutting.
Continuing to grow, Develop and refine skills. Start to have hobbies; sport, dance, acting etc. Able to make controlled fine movements; drawing, sewing, playing an instrument, drawing. Girls may start early signs of puberty from 10 yrs onwards. Boys; puberty normally begins later on.
Growing stronger. Boys start puberty and many girls will have regular periods. Variance in height/ strength. On average most boys are taller than most girls at the end of this stage.
Become adults, girls may have reached physical maturity; boys will continue to grow and change until their mid 20s. 2. INTELLECTUAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT:
Depends greatly on extent of their own experiences and opportunities they are given from the earliest stages. Children learn in a variety of ways and will some particular tasks easier than others due to their own abilities and strengths. Some theories of cognitive development, which are important to bear in mind which thinking about stages of learning include: •
Albert Bandura: ‘Social learning theory’; he believed children watch others, in particular adults and role models, and copy what they do – positive and negative behaviour. •
Jean Piaget: children pass through different stages of learning; he believed the way children think and learn is governed by their age and stage of development, because learning is based on experience. As children’s experiences change, they adapt what they believe. Children need ot extend their experiences in order to extend their leaning.
STAGE OF LEARNING
0 -2 yrs
Sensory motor stage
start to find out about the world around them; discover what things around them can do 2 – 6 yrs .
Start to develop thought processes and use symbolic play. Find it easier to learn when they can see and use practical examples 6 – 11 yrs
Concrete operations stage
Able to think on more abstract level. Can use more abstract concepts. 12 YRS +
Able to apply what they have learned to new situations.
B.F Skinner: ‘Positive reinforcement’; he believed children learn best through positive experiences. We will repeat experiences that are enjoyable and avoid those that are not. •
Lev Vygotsky: ‘Zone of Proximal Development’; he believed that children need adults to support them in their learning in order to extend their learning…He...
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