1. The sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth to 19 are the following: Babies at birth – most are born at 40 week and premature babies more often need a little more time to reach the same level of development as babies born in and after the 40th week. Most are born with just reflexes for survival at first. These would be swallowing, sucking reflexes to help feed. Rooting reflex baby will move its head if the cheek is touched to find a nipple or teat. Grasp reflex babies will grip objects touching their palm. Startle reflex they will often move arms outwards and clench fists is a sound movement or light suddenly startles them. Walking reflex when babies are held upright with their feet on a firm surface they usually mimic walking. Babies at one month – usually start to settle into a pattern. Sleep a lot but spend logger periods of time awake. Cry to communicate their needs and parents may recognise the different ones. Learning about the parents and carers may stop crying when they hear familiar voices. Try and focus on people that are holding them (focus is at a distance of 20 to 25cm at this age). Babies at 3 months - they have quite often grown in weight and height, some have learnt the difference between day and night and will sleep through the night. They are less likely to cry and parents can distinguish what the cries mean more. They tend to sleep less and be more alert and may smile more often to show they know the sound of their carer’s voices and movements. Babies at 6 months – They are very alert and turn their heads to see what is happening. They enjoy playing and show it by smiling and making squealing noises. They can now grab objects and move it from one hand to another, they can also focus on it and explore it if it’s interesting enough. They show that they are starting to understand a little of what is said to them and try and communicate. They become stronger, able to sit up with things like high chairs and roll from their backs to their front. Usually they are settled in to a proper routine and have certain naps, times of play and times to be held. Babies at 9 months – Babies physical development is more noticeable at this age. They will be crawling finding other ways of being mobile and are able to sit up completely unassisted. These new movements mean they can explore more. They also spend a lot of time sitting and playing. Along with bigger movements they are getting more skilled at picking up objects and handling them even though objects still get popped in the mouth. Their language is also developing babbling becomes more tuneful and they are learning what some key words are i.e. they may get excited when they hear words like drink, dinner or bottle. From 8 month they are starting to show who they are enjoying being with i.e. they will cry when left with a stranger and will actively try and be with their main carers. The cognitive development has a massive change they start to learn that people and objects continue to exist when out of sight. This is an important breakthrough for babies as before they were not troubled when people leave the room now they are aware so are desperate to be with their main carers when they are not around. Babies at a year – Babies have learnt a lot by this age they are very mobile and are more often than not on the verge of walking. They may try to stand by holding on to things (some even already walking with furniture) They are very quick at crawling and their eyesight has developed to that of an adults. They are also becoming skilled at using their hands i.e. touching, moving, organising, dropping, putting things in containers and taking them out again and looking to see what happens to them. They enjoy doing repeated action of play like taking their socks off constantly. They are able to sit up and feed themselves with their hands and have preferences with food. They become more aware and notice what people are doing...
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