Unit 1- child and young person development
1.1 The main stages and pattern of development from birth to 19 years including physical, communication and intellectual development and emotional and social development.
Child development refers to the biological, psychological and emotional changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy. It is a continuous process with a predictable sequence yet having a unique course for every child. It does not progress at the same rate and each stage is affected by the preceding types of development. Because these developmental changes may be strongly influenced by genetic factors and events during prenatal life, genetics and prenatal development are usually included as part of the study of child development.
There are various definitions of periods in a child's development, since each period is a continuum with individual differences regarding start and ending.
Some age-related development periods and examples of defined intervals are: newborn (ages 0–4 weeks); infant (ages 4 weeks – 1 year); toddler (ages 1–3 years); preschooler (ages 4–6 years); school-aged child (ages 6–13 years); adolescent (ages 13–19).
The optimal development of children is considered vital to society and so it is important to understand the social, cognitive, emotional, and educational development of children
Child physical development means the way in which children's body increases in skill involving movement. Developmental norms are patterns of growth that a child is expected to follow when growing. Variations will always exist, since each child is an individual developing in their own unique way. Gross motor skills, using larger muscles such as those in arms and legs for example ,throwing , walking and running
Fine motor skills, using smaller muscles such as those in the fingers—for example , a pencil or knife and fork, or doing up their clothes.
How Parents Can Help Kids Reach Physical Developmental Milestones During early childhood, the progression of physical development can be an astounding thing to observe. One of the best ways parents can ensure that their kids achieve key physical developmental milestones is to create an environment that encourages kids to explore the world. For infants, this means giving your baby plenty of room to roll, crawl and play. Parents should also ensure that their infant has plenty of safe objects nearby to practice grasping, shaking and placing in the mouth. In order to encourage large-motor skill development, it is essential to give kids plenty of opportunities to practice their newly emerging abilities. Giving kids the time, space and resources they need to roll balls, run, jump and balance. Offer kids the chance to engage in play, but do not pressure them to be experts at every single thing. Remember, kids need to be able to explore their abilities and build confidence in their skills.
Parents can help their kids develop fine-motor skills in much the same way. Give children play experiences involving drawing, putting together puzzles or stringing beads to help them build better findmotor movements and improved hand-eye coordination. Remember that safety is essential. As infants and children become increasingly mobile and more physically active, it is important to have some basic safety precautions in place. Stairway gaits, electrical outlet covers and parental observation are all ways to minimize risks while still giving kids the freedom they need to explore and play.
What to expect of physical development
Physical development by six months
He will show basic distinctions in vision, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching, temperature and perceiving pain. He will also lift his head when on his stomach and possibly show squeals of delight as well as grasp objects and roll over.
Physical development by 12 months...
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