Unit 5 Outline- ap psych myers

Topics: Classical conditioning, Reinforcement, Operant conditioning Pages: 4 (711 words) Published: January 18, 2015
Unit 5 Outline-Learning
1. How do we learn?
Things to consider: associative learning
- Conditioning (operant and classical)
-Two stimuli or response and consequence
Learning: permanent behavior change due to experience
Habituates: when a withdrawal response diminishes
11. Classical Conditioning
Classical conditioning: one learns to anticipate two or more stimuli and link events Pavlovs experiment:
Salivation in response to the food was automatic, so it was an unconditioned response (UR) Food in the mouth triggered the dog’s salivary reflex- Food stimulus is an unconditioned stimulus (US) Salivation in response to the tone was conditional upon the dog’s learned association with the tone and the food- this is the Conditioned Response (CR) The previous neutral tone stimulus that now triggered the conditional salivation is called the Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Acquisition-initial learning process

-pairing a NS with an UCS to trigger a CR
Higher order conditioning- where a new neutral stimulus is paired with a conditioned stimulus to create a second (and weaker) conditioned stimulus. (ex. With feeding the dog, if you were to put a flash a light before you rang the bell, the dog would learn that the light predicts the bell). Extinction- when an UCS isn’t followed by a CS, leading to a diminished CS Spintaneous recovery- when an UCS reappers after several hourse, leading to a CR that was suppressed before

Generalization- tendancy to respond to stimuli similar to the CS
Discrimination- able to differentiate CS with other stimuli
Cognitive processes: rescola and wagner –animals can learn the predictability of an event -the more predictable the association, the stronger the response Learned helplessness by Martin Seligman- hopelessness an animal or human feels when unable to avoid certain events Biological predespositions by John Garcia- all associations can be...
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