Children will develop in different ways and at varying rates, however, most of them will pass through a similar sequence of development as certain steps need to be passed in order for the next step to be achieved. The different aspects of development:
Physical Development is very rapid during the early stages and babies respond from day one; by six months, babies begin to reach for objects! Birth to One Year: Babies should be able to sit unassisted by this time and also crawl or bum shuffle. They may be able to stand and move about in this manner with support from people or objects (tables, chairs, etc.) Solid foods are introduced by this stage. One to Two Years: By this stage, babies are walking, showing curiosity about objects and what they can do and communicating with basic gestures and language sounds(Waving, shaking head, etc. They will be able to feed themselves some finger foods and hold a cup with both hands. They enjoy holding and using objects such as crayons and balls. Two to Three Years: The child is mobile by this stage and can run, climb and kick. They are able to use a pincer grip to hold pencils and scribble– they enjoy mark making, turning the pages to books and building with tower blocks. At Three Years: Mobility and agility increase and the child is able to jump, walk backwards and sideways as well as walking down steps with one foot on each step. They can have good spatial awareness, can stand on tiptoe and ride tricycles using pedals. They can copy shapes, hold a pencil in a dynamic tripod grasp, paint using a brush and cut paper with scissors. They can use tower blocks to build tall towers by this stage. Intellectual Development begins through exploration with the senses, activity and movement. From the start, babies are sensitive to touch and movement. They respond to sound and to a human voice in particular by two months old. They like sweet tastes and recognise the smell of their mothers breast milk. Babies are also sensitive to light and likes to look at human faces; imitating facial expressions. One to Four Months: Babies recognise speech sounds and can link voices of familiar people to faces. They can also imitate low or high pitched sounds. Four to Six Months: Babies begin to realise that certain people are permanent, such as their mother. They can reach for and grasp objects and begin to show preferences for certain foods and people. Six to Nine Months: Babies achieve object permanence and begin to understand gestures and signs such as their bottle, a bib, or being taken into their room and placed in their cot. Nine to Twelve Months: Memory develops and babies begin to understand routine. They can also remember an imitate past events such as waving good-bye or blowing a kiss. One to Two Years: A child can follow simple instructions and begins to learn through trial and error. They begin mark making. Children begin to play make-believe games and think out loud. Two Years: Improved memory allows children to understand concepts, cause and effect. They can talk about an absent object. Three Years: A child can begins to develop symbolic behaviour – they can pretend, play simple games and use one object to represent another. They can also identify common colours. Emotional and Social Development is evident in a babies smile in response to their carer during the first 5-6 weeks. They often imitate facial expressions and express enjoyment by moving their bodies in response. Babies are still exploring and figuring out where they begin and where they end. One to Four Months: Babies are very responsive to their main carer or preferred persons and will smile, turn to face them, recognise their features and also find comfort in that person. Babies can smile and enjoy sucking. Babies love cuddles and attention at this stage and will begin to stay awake for longer. They show obvious signs of pleasure and enjoyment in certain routines or people. Four to Six Months: By this stage, most babies have...
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